Figure 4.

A working model for the osmoregulation network of WH8102. When under hyperosmotic stress, N+ is actively exported by the NhaS3 antiporter; K+ is actively transported into the cell by the Ktr systems, and stabilizes the global transcription regulator σ38; this then activates other genes in relation with osmotic response, all represented as deep grey ellipses, including osmolyte transporters or synthetases, such as BetT, ProVWX, GgtABCD and GgpS; hyperosmotic stress also activates the two component system of EnvZ and OmpR to regulate porin protein OmpC and OmpF located in the periplasmic membrane; Besides sigma factor-regulated genes, SdmT and GsmT synthesize the major osmolyte betaine, and GpgS and GpgP to synthesize glucosylglycerol.

Mao et al. BMC Genomics 2010 11:291   doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-291
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