Table 2

Geographic, linguistic and socio-cultural distribution of major Indian-specific mtDNA haplogroups

HAPLOGROUP FREQUENCY (95% CR FOR PROPORTION)


n

Mb

M2

M3a

M4a

M6

M18

M25

Rc

R5

R6

U2id

R2; U7; W

EEe

WEf


India

2544g

65 (63.1–66.8)

6.3 (5.4–7.3)

2.2 (1.7–2.9)

0.6 (.4–1)

2.9 (2.3–3.6)

2.1 (1.6–2.8)

0.9 (.6–1.4)

11.4 (10.2–12.7)

2.2 (1.7–2.8)

1.3 (.9–1.8)

5.3 (4.5–6.2)

3.4 (2.7–4.2)

10.5 (9.4–11.8)

12.1 (10.9–13.4)

Iran

436

5.3 (3.6–7.8)

0 (0–.8)

0.5 (.1–1.6)

0 (0–.8)

0 (0–.8)

0.2 (.1–1.3)

0 (0–.8)

3.2 (1.9–5.3)

0.9 (.4–2.3)

0 (0–.8)

0.2 (.1–1.3)

13.3 (10.4–16.8)

3.9 (2.5–6.2)

90.8 (87.7–93.2)

Socio-cultural affiliation (Indian data only)


Caste population

1204

57.8 (54.9–60.5)

5.1 (4–6.5)

4.2 (3.2–5.5)

1.1 (.6–1.8)

3 (2.2–4.1)

1.4 (.9–2.2)

1.4 (.9–2.2)

14.1 (12.3–16.2)

3.3 (2.5–4.5)

1.7 (1.1–2.5)

7.8 (6.4–9.5)

4.8 (3.7–6.2)

4 (3–5.2)

17.1 (15.1–19.3)

Tribal population

1332

71.5 (69–73.8)

7.5 (6.2–9)

0.5 (.2–1)

0.2 (0–.5)

2.7 (2–3.7)

2.7 (2–3.7)

0.5 (.2–1)

8.9 (7.5–10.6)

1.2 (.7–1.9)

0.9 (.5–1.6)

3 (2.2–4.1)

2 (1.4–2.9)

16.5 (14.6–18.6)

7.5 (6.2–9)

Brahmins & Kshatriyas

313

60.1 (54.5–65.3)

1.9 (.9–4.1)

5.1 (3.2–8.1)

1 (.3–2.8)

0.6 (.2–2.3)

1 (.3–2.8)

2.2 (1.1–4.5)

14.7 (11.2–19.1)

4.5 (2.7–7.4)

1.3 (.5–3.2)

6.4 (4.2–9.7)

6.1 (3.9–9.3)

3.5 (2–6.2)

17.6 (13.8–22.2)

Other Castesh

517

61.5 (57.2–65.6)

6.2 (4.4–8.6)

4.6 (3.1–6.8)

1.2 (.5–2.5)

2.9 (1.8–4.7)

2.1 (1.2–3.8)

0.8 (.3–2)

12.6 (10–15.7)

2.3 (1.3–4)

1.5 (.8–3)

7.4 (5.4–9.9)

3.9 (2.5–5.9)

1.7 (.1–1.4)

16.6 (1.2–3.8)

Language groups of India


Indo-European

963

57.5 (54.4–60.6)

3.8 (2.8–5.3)

4.5 (3.3–6)

1.0 (.6–1.9)

2.7 (1.9–3.9)

1.1 (.6–2)

1.6 (1–2.6)

7.8 (6.3–9.7)

2.5 (1.7–3.7)

1.6 (1–2.6)

7.1 (5.6–8.9)

6.9 (5.4–8.6)

4.0 (3–5.5)

19.9 (17.5–22.6)

Dravidic

1063

70.0 (67.2–72.7)

10.8 (9.1–12.8)

1.2 (.7–2.1)

0.5 (.2–1.1)

4.0 (2.9–5.3)

1.4 (.9–2.3)

0.5 (.2–1.1)

8.9 (7.4–10.8)

2.7 (1.9–3.9)

1.4 (.9–2.3)

5.9 (4.7–7.5)

1.2 (.7–2.1)

3.0 (2.1–4.2)

8.8 (7.3–10.7)

Tibeto-Burman

249

59.8 (53.6–65.7)

0 (0–1.5)

0.4 (.1–2.2)

0 (0–1.5)

1.6 (.7–4)

1.2 (.4–3.5)

1.2 (.4–3.5)

0.8 (.2–2.9)

1.2 (.4–3.5)

0 (0–1.5)

0.8 (.2–2.9)

2.0 (.9–4.6)

61.4 (55.3–67.3)

3.2 (1.7–6.2)

Austro-Asiatic (Mundari)

90

86.7 (78.1–92.2)

2.2 (.7–7.7)

0 (0–4)

0 (0–4)

0 (0–4)

26.7 (18.6–36.7)

0 (0–4)

4.4 (1.8–10.9)

0 (0–4)

1.1 (.3–6)

1.1 (.3–6)

1.1 (.3–6)

0 (0–4)

1.1 (.3–6)

Indo-European i

250

66.4 (60.3–72)

8.0 (5.3–12)

0.4 (.1–2.2)

0.8 (.2–2.8)

4.8 (2.8–8.2)

1.6 (.6–4)

0.4 (.1–2.2)

8.8 (5.9–13)

2.0 (.9–4.6)

1.6 (.6–4)

6.4 (4–10.1)

4.0 (2.2–7.2)

1.2 (.4–3.5)

13.6 (9.9–18.4)

Indo-European j

713

54.4 (50.7–58)

2.4 (1.5–3.8)

5.9 (4.4–7.9)

1.1 (.6–2.2)

2.0 (1.2–3.3)

1.0 (.5–2)

2.0 (1.2–3.3)

7.4 (5.7–9.6)

2.7 (1.7–4.1)

1.5 (.9–2.7)

7.3 (5.6–9.4)

7.9 (6.1–10.1)

5.0 (3.7–6.9)

22.2 (19.3–25.4)

Indian States and Bangladesh (excluding tribal populations)k


Andhra Pradesh

245

65.3 (59.1–71.0)

7.7 (5–11.8)

2.8 (1.4–5.7)

1.6 (.6–4.1)

3.3 (1.7–6.4)

4.1 (2.3–7.4)

0 (0–1.5)

18 (13.7–23.2)

4.1 (2.3–7.4)

1.2 (.4–3.5)

5.3 (3.2–8.9)

2.4 (1.1–5.2)

1.2 (.4–3.5)

8.9 (6–13.2)

Bangladesh

30

66.67 (48.6–80.8)

9.96 (3.61–25.7)

0 (.08–11.2)

0 (.08–11.2)

3.29 (.78–16.6)

3.29 (.78–16.6)

0 (.08–11.2)

6.67 (2.04–21.4)

0 (.08–11.2)

0 (.08–11.2)

6.67 (2.04–21.4)

3.29 (.78–16.6)

9.96 (3.61–25.7)

6.67 (2.04–21.4)

Gujarat

57

40.4 (28.6–53.4)

5.3 (1.9–14.4)

7 (2.9–16.7)

1.8 (.4–9.2)

1.8 (.4–9.2)

1.8 (.4–9.2)

0 (0–6.2)

17.5 (9.9–29.4)

5.3 (1.9–14.4)

1.8 (.4–9.2)

1.8 (.4–9.2)

17.5 (9.9–29.4)

5.3 (1.9–14.4)

33.3 (22.5–46.3)

Karnataka

47h

55.3 (41.2–68.6)

2.1 (.5–11.1)

2.1 (.5–11.1)

0 (.1–7.4)

0 (.1–7.4)

0 (.1–7.4)

0 (.1–7.4)

19.1 (10.5–32.6)

6.4 (2.3–17.2)

0 (.1–7.4)

10.6 (4.7–22.7)

6.4 (2.3–17.2)

0 (.1–7.4)

14.9 (7.5–27.8)

Kashmir

19

26.3 (11.9–49.1)

0 (.1–16.8)

0 (.1–16.8)

5.3 (1.2–24.9)

10.5 (3.2–31.7)

0 (.1–16.8)

0 (.1–16.8)

10.5 (3.2–31.7)

0 (.1–16.8)

5.3 (1.2–24.9)

10.5 (3.2–31.7)

5.3 (1.2–24.9)

21.1 (8.7–43.7)

31.6 (15.4–54.3)

Kerala

100

54 (44.2–63.5)

4 (1.6–9.8)

0 (0–3.6)

0 (0–3.6)

0 (0–3.6)

0 (0–3.6)

5 (2.2–11.2)

25 (17.6–34.3)

9 (4.9–16.2)

1 (.2–5.4)

7 (3.5–13.8)

1 (.2–5.4)

4 (1.6–9.8)

11 (6.3–18.7)

Maharashtra

117

65 (55.9–73)

3.4 (1.4–8.5)

11.1 (6.6–18.1)

0.9 (.2–4.6)

0 (0–3.1)

0 (0–3.1)

5.1 (2.4–10.7)

6.8 (3.5–12.9)

0.9 (.2–4.6)

0.9 (.2–4.6)

4.3 (1.9–9.6)

4.3 (1.9–9.6)

5.1 (2.4–10.7)

23.1 (16.4–31.5)

Punjab

150

36 (28.8–44)

0.7 (.2–3.6)

4.7 (2.3–9.3)

1.3 (.4–4.7)

0.7 (.2–3.6)

0 (0–2.4)

2.7 (1.1–6.6)

11.3 (7.2–17.4)

0.7 (.2–3.6)

0.7 (.2–3.6)

7.3 (4.2–12.7)

14 (9.4–20.5)

5.3 (2.8–10.2)

42.7 (35–50.7)

Rajasthan

36

69.4 (53–82)

0 (.1–9.5)

13.9 (6.2–28.8)

0 (.1–9.5)

0 (.1–9.5)

5.6 (1.7–18.2)

0 (.1–9.5)

22.2 (11.8–38.2)

5.6 (1.7–18.2)

2.8 (.7–14.2)

2.8 (.7–14.2)

5.6 (1.7–18.2)

0 (.1–9.5)

2.8 (.7–14.2)

Sri Lanka

132

57.6 (49–65.7)

6.8 (3.7–12.5)

1.5 (.5–5.3)

1.5 (.5–5.3)

1.5 (.5–5.3)

0.8 (.2–4.1)

0 (0–2.7)

12.9 (8.2–19.7)

0.8 (.2–4.1)

3 (1.2–7.5)

12.1 (7.6–18.8)

2.3 (.8–6.5)

2.3 (.8–6.5)

15.2 (10–22.3)

Tamil Nadu

51

64.7 (50.9–76.4)

5.9 (2.1–15.9)

3.9 (1.2–13.2)

2 (.5–10.3)

2 (.5–10.3)

2 (.5–10.3)

0 (0–6.8)

11.8 (5.6–23.4)

0 (0–6.8)

3.9 (1.2–13.2)

2 (.5–10.3)

3.9 (1.2–13.2)

23.5 (14–36.8)

7.8 (3.2–18.5)

Uttar Pradesh

98

52 (42.2–61.7)

1 (.2–5.5)

8.2 (4.2–15.3)

1 (.2–5.5)

0 (0–3.7)

2 (.6–7.1)

1 (.2–5.5)

11.2 (6.4–19)

3.1 (1.1–8.6)

2 (.6–7.1)

15.3 (9.5–23.8)

3.1 (1.1–8.6)

4.1 (1.7–10)

13.3 (8–21.4)

West Bengal

106

71.7 (62.5–79.4)

3.8 (1.5–9.3)

1.9 (.6–6.6)

0 (0–3.4)

5.7 (2.7–11.8)

0 (0–3.4)

0.9 (.2–5.1)

12.3 (7.3–19.9)

6.6 (3.3–13)

2.8 (1–8)

6.6 (3.3–13)

0.9 (.2–5.1)

0.9 (.2–5.1)

7.5 (3.9–14.2)


a a See Tables 8–13 (additional files 3–7, 9) for frequencies of other haplogroups including breakdown of R2, U7 and W

b Includes all haplogroup M sub-haplogroups

c Includes sub-haplogroups R2, R5, R6 and R10

d Composite of haplogroups U2a, U2b and U2c [27]

e Composite of haplogroups A, B, D, G, M7, M8 (including C and Z), M9 (including E), M10, N9 (including Y), R9 (including F)

f Composite of haplogroups HV, TJ, X, N1, N2 and U (except U2i)

g Caste and tribal populations plus 8 Siddi [49] who belong to neither groupings

h Datasets where caste affiliation was not determined (undefined/mixed caste population), Scheduled Caste populations (e.g. the Mukri, see text for explanation) and data from [3] (dataset of 27 haplogroup M samples) are excluded.

i Indo-European speakers of southern India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Sri Lanka)

j Indo-European speakers of northern India (States other than listed in the previous footnote)

k The sum of the presented caste populations sample sizes is different from that given in the third row of the current table because of the addition of the Bangladeshi (n = 30) and extraction of the Mukri (n = 42), Orissa (n = 2) and Bihar (n = 2) data.

Metspalu et al. BMC Genetics 2004 5:26   doi:10.1186/1471-2156-5-26

Open Data