Table 8

Significant marker trait associations of haplotypes found in 190 European barley cultivars and selected kernel and malting quality parameters for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR)
Haplotype Trait Unit MLM_PCA MLM_QK GLM_Q
P R2 Model R2 Marker P R2 Model R2 Marker P R2 Model R2 Marker
PAL_H1 KY dt/ha 0.04* 0.643 0.018 0.007** 0.709 0.022 0.002**1 0.597 0.039
PAL_H2 KF 1-9 0.01* 0.371 0.035 0.005** 0.373 0.040 0.004** 0.370 0.043
KY dt/ha 0.039* 0.643 0.018 0.046* 0.699 0.012 0.018* 0.582 0.024
PAL_H3 KF 1-9 0.006** 0.378 0.042 0.016* 0.363 0.030 0.009** 0.361 0.034
C4H_H1 KY dt/ha 0.007** 0.655 0.030 0.004**2 0.711 0.025 0.001***2 0.601 0.043
F3H_H1 KRP % 0.001***3 0.605 0.031 0.002**3 0.568 0.025 0.002**3 0.568 0.025
KY dt/ha 0.003** 0.662 0.036 0.014* 0.584 0.026 0.014* 0.584 0.026
F3H_H3 KRP % 0.006** 0.595 0.021 0.001**3 0.572 0.028 0.001***3 0.572 0.028
pH pH 0.035* 0.375 0.032 0.011* 0.253 0.048 0.011* 0.253 0.048
F3H_H4 FiAt % 0.002**3 0.376 0.070 0.025* 0.090 0.043 0.025* 0.090 0.043
FEX % 0.007** 0.522 0.073 0.046* 0.199 0.050 0.046* 0.199 0.050
DFR_H3 SF 2.2-2.5 mm % 0.033* 0.250 0.028 0.025* 0.271 0.027 0.030* 0.187 0.028
Brab HE 0.022* 0.557 0.037 0.002**3 0.496 0.063 0.001***3 0.214 0.117
Visc mPas 0.031* 0.679 0.017 0.004** 0.681 0.027 0.004** 0.494 0.043

Different statistical linear models were considered: 1. Mixed linear model (MLM) with principal component analysis (PCA), 2. MLM with kinship (K), 3. General linear model (GLM) with population structure (Q), significant at *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001 or after Bonferroni correction with 1P < 0.0033, 2P < 0.005, 3P < 0.0025. Trait abbreviations are: KY = kernel yield [dt/ha], KF = kernel formation [1-9], SF = Sieve fraction, K_RP = kernel raw protein [%], pH = ph-value, FiAt = final attenuation, FEX = Fermentable extract, Brab= brabender, Visc = viscosity [mPas].

Peukert et al.

Peukert et al. BMC Genetics 2013 14:97   doi:10.1186/1471-2156-14-97

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