Open Access Research article

Cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) from the Eastern Ukraine

Dmitry Dedukh1, Glib Mazepa23, Dmitry Shabanov3, Juriy Rosanov4, Spartak Litvinchuk4, Leo Borkin5, Alsu Saifitdinova1 and Alla Krasikova1*

Author Affiliations

1 Saint-Petersburg State University, Oranienbaumskoie sch. 2, Stary Peterhof, Saint-Petersburg 198504, Russia

2 Department of Ecology and Genetic, Population Biology and Conservation Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, EBC Norbyvägen 18 D, Uppsala 75236, Sweden

3 V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Svobody Sq. 4, Kharkiv 61022, Ukraine

4 Institute of Cytology Russian Academy of Sciences, Tikhoretsky pr. 4, St. Petersburg 194064, Russia

5 Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaia nab.1, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia

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BMC Genetics 2013, 14:26  doi:10.1186/1471-2156-14-26

Published: 16 April 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1: Figure S1:

Full set of lampbrush chromosomes from P. ridibundus oocytes. Immunofluorescent staining with antibodies K121 against TMG-cap of snRNAs reveals enriched marker loops. Chromosomes are counterstained with DAPI. Corresponding phase contrast micrographs are shown at Figure 1. Nu – extrachromosomal and chromosome associated nucleoli. Arrows indicate the most conspicuous marker loops. Scale bar = 50 μm.

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Additional file 2: Figure S2:

Construction of cytological lampbrush chromosome map on example of P. ridibundus lampbrush chromosome H. b. Morphology of lampbrush chromosome H. Giant fusing loops, associated nucleoli and two pairs of marker loops are the most conspicuous marker structures. Dotted lines indicate two marker structures on lampbrush chromosomes, arrowheads show centromeres. Phase contrast micrograph. a. Plotting marker structures on the working chromosome map according to their relative position on lampbrush chromosome. Nu – extrachromosomal and chromosome associated nucleoli. Scale bars = 10 μm.

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Additional file 3: Figure S3:

Comparison of P. ridibundus lampbrush chromosome С (a, b), D (e, f), G (i, j) and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosome D (c, d), C (g, h) and G (k, l). Phase contrast micrographs (a, c, e, g, i, k) and immunofluorescent staining with antibodies against TMG-cap of snRNAs (b, d, f, h, j, l). Chromosomes are counterstained with DAPI. Arrows indicate the most conspicuous marker structures on lampbrush chromosomes, arrowheads show centromeres. Nu – extra-chromosomal nucleoli. Scale bars = 10 μm.

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Additional file 4: Figure S4:

Chromosome H of P. lessonae. Phase contrast micrograph (a), immunofluorescent staining with antibodies against TMG-cap of snRNAs (b), coilin (c) and FISH with (TAACCC)5-biotin oligonucleotide (d). Chromosomes are counterstained with DAPI. Arrows indicate lumpy and long marker loops in long arm of chromosome H of P. lessonae (a, b). Terminal and interstitial blocks of (TTAGGG)n repeat (indicated by arrows) in P. lessonae lampbrush chromosome H (d). Arrows show coilin-positive granules in telomere regions and in interstitial sites corresponding to chromomeres containing (TTAGGG)-repeat (c). Arrowheads show centromeres. Nu – extrachromosomal nucleoli. Scale bars = 10 μm.

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Additional file 5: Figure S5:

RrS1 centromere repeat mapping in metaphase chromosome preparations of both parental frog species from the Eastern Ukraine. FISH with RrS1 repeat in metaphase chromosomes of P. ridibundus (a) and P. lessonae (b). Arrows indicate clusters of RrS1 repeat in metaphase chromosomes of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae. Chromosomes are counterstained with DAPI. Scale bars = 10 μm.

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Additional file 6: Figure S6:

RrS1 centromere repeat mapping in lampbrush chromosomes of P. lessonae. a. FISH of RrS1 repeat to lampbrush chromosomes of P. lessonae. Clusters of RrS1 repeat of various size localize in centromere regions (shown by arrowheads) of all chromosomes. Asterisks indicate enlarged fragments of lampbrush chromosomes. Scale bar = 50 μm. b, c, d. Fragments of chromosomes with conspicuous cluster of RrS1 repeat in a centromere region. Nu – extrachromosomal nucleoli. Chromosomes are counterstained with DAPI. Scale bars = 10 μm.

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