A rat model of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia carries a missense mutation in the Edaradd gene
Institute of Laboratory Animals, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
BMC Genetics 2011, 12:91 doi:10.1186/1471-2156-12-91Published: 21 October 2011
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a congenital disorder characterized by sparse hair, oligodontia, and inability to sweat. It is caused by mutations in any of three Eda pathway genes: ectodysplasin (Eda), Eda receptor (Edar), and Edar-associated death domain (Edaradd), which encode ligand, receptor, and intracellular adaptor molecule, respectively. The Eda signaling pathway activates NF-κB, which is central to ectodermal differentiation. Although the causative genes and the molecular pathway affecting HED have been identified, no curative treatment for HED has been established. Previously, we found a rat spontaneous mutation that caused defects in hair follicles and named it sparse-and-wavy (swh). Here, we have established the swh rat as the first rat model of HED and successfully identified the swh mutation.
The swh/swh rat showed sparse hair, abnormal morphology of teeth, and absence of sweat glands. The ectoderm-derived glands, meibomian, preputial, and tongue glands, were absent. We mapped the swh mutation to the most telomeric part of rat Chr 7 and found a Pro153Ser missense mutation in the Edaradd gene. This mutation was located in the death domain of EDARADD, which is crucial for signal transduction and resulted in failure to activate NF-κB.
These findings suggest that swh is a loss-of-function mutation in the rat Edaradd and indicate that the swh/swh rat would be an excellent animal model of HED that could be used to investigate the pathological basis of the disease and the development of new therapies.