Genome-wide association of milk fatty acids in Dutch dairy cattle
Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands
BMC Genetics 2011, 12:43 doi:10.1186/1471-2156-12-43Published: 11 May 2011
Identifying genomic regions, and preferably individual genes, responsible for genetic variation in milk fat composition of bovine milk will enhance the understanding of biological pathways involved in fatty acid synthesis and may point to opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. An association study of 50,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed for even-chain saturated fatty acids (C4:0-C18:0), even-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (C10:1-C18:1), and the polyunsaturated C18:2cis9,trans11 (CLA) to identify genomic regions associated with individual fatty acids in bovine milk.
The two-step single SNP association analysis found a total of 54 regions on 29 chromosomes that were significantly associated with one or more fatty acids. Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 14, 19, and 26 showed highly significant associations with seven to ten traits, explaining a relatively large percentage of the total additive genetic variation. Many additional regions were significantly associated with the fatty acids. Some of the regions harbor genes that are known to be involved in fat synthesis or were previously identified as underlying quantitative trait loci for fat yield or content, such as ABCG2 and PPARGC1A on BTA 6; ACSS2 on BTA 13; DGAT1 on BTA 14; ACLY, SREBF1, STAT5A, GH, and FASN on BTA 19; SCD1 on BTA26; and AGPAT6 on BTA 27.
Medium chain and unsaturated fatty acids are strongly influenced by polymorphisms in DGAT1 and SCD1. Other regions also showed significant associations with the fatty acids studied. These additional regions explain a relatively small percentage of the total additive genetic variance, but they are relevant to the total genetic merit of an individual and in unraveling the genetic background of milk fat composition. Regions identified in this study can be fine mapped to find causal mutations. The results also create opportunities for changing milk fat composition through breeding by selecting individuals based on their genetic merit for milk fat composition.