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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago

Jun-Hun Loo1, Jean A Trejaut1, Ju-Chen Yen1, Zong-Sian Chen1, Chien-Liang Lee1 and Marie Lin12*

Author Affiliations

1 Transfusion Medicine and Molecular Anthropology Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

2 Department and Graduate Institute of Forensic Medicine College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

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BMC Genetics 2011, 12:21  doi:10.1186/1471-2156-12-21

Published: 31 January 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Sample information.

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Additional file 2:

Phylogenetic tree of populations of Taiwan, ISEA and MSEA using mtDNA (top) haplogroup frequencies (Fst distances) and Y-STR haplotypes frequencies (bottom). All mtDNA data information was obtained from the present study and from (Trejaut et al.; material in preparation). Y-STR data on Taiwan and ISEA was obtained from the present study and information for Mainland Southeast Asia populations was obtained from [39-43].

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Additional file 3:

Y-STR networks of Yami, Ivatan and other populations of ISEA and MSEA. Median-joining network for Taiwan, Southeast Asia and Island Southeast Asia of 16 Y-STR' variations within Haplogroup of O1, O2 and O3 (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS390II, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DY438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635(YGATAC4), DYS635(YGATAH4). Circle areas are proportional to haplotype frequency and lines are the mutational differences between haplotypes.

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Additional file 4:

Concordance between Yami NRY phylogenetic diversity (Y-SNP and Y-STR) and Wei and Liu ethnographic study of kinship (1962). Villages are represented by boxes and center brackets between Roman numerals. Each family is represented by a single Y-STR lineage along the correlation lines. The Correlation were obtain with the GenGIS program [68]. Concordance between Yami NRY phylogenetic diversity (Y-SNP and Y-STR) and the genealogy survey of Wei and Liu (1962) [22].

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Additional file 5:

Possible settlement scenarios of Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago from Taiwan or the Philippines. Scenario 1 is inspired from Ross linguistic study [2] and supports the "Out of Taiwan" model. The immediate ancestors of Proto Malayo-Polynesian speakers migrated out of Taiwan (~6,000 YBP to 4,000 YBP) to Orchid Island, the Batanes islands and Luzon, and developed languages specific to each regions (Figure 1). Scenario 2 is also inspired from Ross linguistic study [2]. In brief, the Proto Malayo-Polynesian origin is not located, but Northern Luzon is assumed to be a center of dispersion. As such, Orchid and Batanes islands could have been bypassed/ignored by the first migrants going from Taiwan to Northern Luzon (6,000 YBP to 4,000 YBP). Proto-Batanic languages would have developed during and after migrations from Luzon to the Batanes and Orchid islands (~3,000 YBP) where local languages later became more specific to Ivatan or Yami. Scenario 3 is based on genetics studies with first, a Bellwood-like expansion of people out of Taiwan ~4,000 years ago [10]. Secondly, Orchid and Batanes Islands could have been re-colonized from the south (as early as ~3,000 years ago, given the genetic estimates). Thirdly, later gene flow from Taiwan or Luzon would have affected the genetic profiles of people from Orchid or Batanes islands to look more like Taiwanese Aborigines or Filipinos respectively. Alternatively, the second stage could have been restricted to Ivatan who later extended their influence to Yami. This scheme is compatible with anthropological studies reporting that little to no external influence between Yami and Taiwan occurred from 1,500 YBP to 300 YBP [4]. The historically reported movement of people back and forth between Ivatan and Luzon during the 18th century typhoon and famine [23] most likely intensified Ivatan genetic affinity with Luzon and supports the last stage of this scenario.

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