Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

Stéphanie Mariette157*, Muriel Tavaud2, Uraiwan Arunyawat16, Gaëlle Capdeville1, Muriel Millan3 and Franck Salin4

Author Affiliations

1 INRA, Unité de Recherche sur les Espèces Fruitières, Domaine de la Grande Ferrade, 71 avenue Edouard Bourlaux, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France

2 INRA, UMR GDPP, Domaine de la Grande Ferrade, 71 avenue Edouard Bourlaux, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France

3 INRA, UMR DIAPC, Domaine de Melgueil, 34130 Mauguio, France

4 Centre technique interprofessionel des fruits et légumes, DSTFL-équipe Fruits, Centre Ctifl de Balandran, BP32, 30127 Bellegarde, France

5 INRA, UMR BIOGECO 1202, Domaine de l'Hermitage, BP45, 33611 Gazinet-Cestas Cedex, France

6 Department of Genetics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

7 INRA, UMR GDPP, Domaine de la Grande Ferrade, 71 avenue Edouard Bourlaux, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France

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BMC Genetics 2010, 11:77  doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-77

Published: 20 August 2010

Abstract

Background

Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L.

Results

Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles.

Conclusions

Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry.