Venom glands have evolved multiple times in catfishes. The results of a character optimization analysis of a siluriform phylogeny generated from 440 morphological characters indicate the independent evolution of venom glands within the Loricarioidei as well as within the Siluroidei, leading to the majority of venomous catfish diversity. Phylogeny redrawn from Diogo . Red branches indicate venomous lineages, black branches indicate non venomous lineages, yellow branches indicate lineages not examined in this study.
Wright BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009 9:282 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-282