Intronization, de-intronization and intron sliding are rare in Cryptococcus
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:192 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-192Published: 7 August 2009
Eukaryotic pre-mRNA gene transcripts are processed by the spliceosome to remove portions of the transcript, called spliceosomal introns. The spliceosome recognizes intron boundaries by the presence of sequence signals (motifs) contained in the actual transcript, thus sequence changes in the genome that affect existing splicing signals or create new signals may lead to changes in transcript splicing patterns. Such changes may lead to previously excluded (intronic) transcript regions being included (exonic) or vice versa. Such changes can affect the encoded protein sequence and/or post-transcriptional regulation, and are thus a potentially important source of genomic and phenotypic novelty. Two recent papers suggest that such changes may be a major force in remodeling of eukaryotic gene structures, however the rate of occurrence of such changes has not been assessed at the genomic level.
I studied four closely related species of Cryptoccocus fungi. Among 28,256 studied introns, canonical GT/C...AG boundaries are nearly universally conserved across all four species. Among only 40 observed cases of cDNA-confirmed non-conserved intron boundaries, most are likely to involve alternative splicing. I find only five cases of "intronization," intron creation from an internal exonic region by de novo emergence of new splicing boundaries, and no cases of the reverse process, "de-intronization." I find no more than ten clear cases of true movement of an intron boundary of a possibly constitutively spliced intron, and no clear cases of true "intron sliding," in which changes in the positions of both intron boundaries could lead to a movement of the intron position along the coding sequence.
These results suggest that intronization, de-intronization, and intron boundary movement are rare events in evolution.