Figure 4.

Phylogenetic tree of 51 mtDNA sequences. Mutations are scored relative to the rCRS [17]For the tree construction, the length variation in the poly-C stretch at np 16193 was not used, while the variation at np 309 is indicated only when phylogenetically relevant. Mutations are shown on the branches. They are transitions unless a base change is explicitly indicated; insertions are suffixed with a plus sign (+) and the inserted nucleotide(s), and deletions are characterized by "d"; back mutations are highlighted by "@"; recurrent mutations are underlined. Dating is reported in kilo years. Some sequences are incomplete: * from 3694 to 3738 nps; ** from 8353 to 8472 nps. For the ethnic/geographic origins of the samples, see Additional file 2. Population codes: Th-CI and Th-CII: Central Tharus; Th-E: Eastern Tharus; H-ND: Hindus from New Delhi; H-Te: Hindus from Terai; AP: Andhra Pradesh; UP: Uttar Pradesh; N-In, NE-In, S-In: North, North-East, South Indians, respectively; PK: Pakistan. Symbols surrounded by a circle are from literature. (a) Nomenclature different from that (M45) reported in the “mtDNA tree Build 5 (8 Jul 2009)” ( webcite).

Fornarino et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009 9:154   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154
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