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Non-homogeneous models of sequence evolution in the Bio++ suite of libraries and programs

Julien Dutheil1* and Bastien Boussau2

Author Affiliations

1 BiRC – Bioinformatics Research Center – University of Aarhus, C. F. Møllers Alle, Building 1110, DK-8000 Århus C, Denmark

2 UMR CNRS 5558 – Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive, CNRS, Université de Lyon, Université lyon 1, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre, 69622 Villeurbanne, France

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008, 8:255  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-255

Published: 22 September 2008



Accurately modeling the sequence substitution process is required for the correct estimation of evolutionary parameters, be they phylogenetic relationships, substitution rates or ancestral states; it is also crucial to simulate realistic data sets. Such simulation procedures are needed to estimate the null-distribution of complex statistics, an approach referred to as parametric bootstrapping, and are also used to test the quality of phylogenetic reconstruction programs. It has often been observed that homologous sequences can vary widely in their nucleotide or amino-acid compositions, revealing that sequence evolution has changed importantly among lineages, and may therefore be most appropriately approached through non-homogeneous models. Several programs implementing such models have been developed, but they are limited in their possibilities: only a few particular models are available for likelihood optimization, and data sets cannot be easily generated using the resulting estimated parameters.


We hereby present a general implementation of non-homogeneous models of substitutions. It is available as dedicated classes in the Bio++ libraries and can hence be used in any C++ program. Two programs that use these classes are also presented. The first one, Bio++ Maximum Likelihood (BppML), estimates parameters of any non-homogeneous model and the second one, Bio++ Sequence Generator (BppSeqGen), simulates the evolution of sequences from these models. These programs allow the user to describe non-homogeneous models through a property file with a simple yet powerful syntax, without any programming required.


We show that the general implementation introduced here can accommodate virtually any type of non-homogeneous models of sequence evolution, including heterotachous ones, while being computer efficient. We furthermore illustrate the use of such general models for parametric bootstrapping, using tests of non-homogeneity applied to an already published ribosomal RNA data set.