Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

A DNA and morphology based phylogenetic framework of the ant genus Lasius with hypotheses for the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture

Munetoshi Maruyama12, Florian M Steiner345*, Christian Stauffer4, Toshiharu Akino6, Ross H Crozier5 and Birgit C Schlick-Steiner345

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, Hyakunin-chô 3-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073, Japan

2 Department of Zoology, Field Musem of Natural History, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago IL 60605-2496, USA

3 Institute of Zoology, Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, Boku, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, 1180 Vienna, Austria

4 Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Boku, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, 1190 Vienna, Austria

5 School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia

6 Laboratory of Insect Behavior, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ôwasi 1-2, Tsukuba-shi 305-8634, Japan

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008, 8:237  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-237

Published: 19 August 2008



Ants of the genus Lasius are ecologically important and an important system for evolutionary research. Progress in evolutionary research has been hindered by the lack of a well-founded phylogeny of the subgenera, with three previous attempts disagreeing. Here we employed two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 16S ribosomal RNA), comprising 1,265 bp, together with 64 morphological characters, to recover the phylogeny of Lasius by Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony inference after exploration of potential causes of phylogenetic distortion. We use the resulting framework to infer evolutionary pathways for social parasitism and fungiculture.


We recovered two well supported major lineages. One includes Acanthomyops, Austrolasius, Chthonolasius, and Lasius pallitarsis, which we confirm to represent a seventh subgenus, the other clade contains Dendrolasius, and Lasius sensu stricto. The subgenus Cautolasius, displaying neither social parasitism nor fungiculture, probably belongs to the second clade, but its phylogenetic position is not resolved at the cutoff values of node support we apply. Possible causes for previous problems with reconstructing the Lasius phylogeny include use of other reconstruction techniques, possibly more prone to instabilities in some instances, and the inclusion of phylogenetically distorting characters.


By establishing an updated phylogenetic framework, our study provides the basis for a later formal taxonomic revision of subgenera and for studying the evolution of various ecologically and sociobiologically relevant traits of Lasius, although there is need for future studies to include nuclear genes and additional samples from the Nearctic. Both social parasitism and fungiculture evolved twice in Lasius, once in each major lineage, which opens up new opportunities for comparative analyses. The repeated evolution of social parasitism has been established for other groups of ants, though not for temporary social parasitism as found in Lasius. For fungiculture, the independent emergence twice in a monophyletic group marks a novel scenario in ants. We present alternative hypotheses for the evolution of both traits, with one of each involving loss of the trait. Though less likely for both traits than later evolution without reversal, we consider reversal as sufficiently plausible to merit independent testing.