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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

On the origins of arrestin and rhodopsin

Carlos E Alvarez

Author Affiliations

Center for Molecular and Human Genetics, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, 43205, USA

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA

Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland

BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008, 8:222  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-222

Published: 29 July 2008

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Supplementary text. A Doc file with discussion of arrestin protein sequence analysis, comparison of human and fish arrestin proteins, human complement of arrestin genes, and the horizontal gene transfer of vertebrate Arrdc3 to a poxvirus.

Format: DOC Size: 86KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Microsoft Word Viewer

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Additional file 2:

Supplementary methods. A Doc file with the methods used in the discovery and analysis of protist arrestins, discovery and protein sequence alignment of zebrafish and human arrestins, secondary and tertiary structure predictions of alpha arrestins, and phylogenetic analysis of canarypox virus arrestin. All protein sequence annotations are also provided here.

Format: DOC Size: 81KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Microsoft Word Viewer

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Additional file 3:

Table of protist arrestins. A PDF file with Table 1. Details of protist arrestins.

Format: PDF Size: 43KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Adobe Acrobat Reader

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Additional file 4:

Multiple sequence alignment of human and zebrafish arrestins. A PDF file showing a multiple sequence alignment of the human arrestin family and select fish arrestins. It shows protein conservation and divergence of different vertebrate arrestins. Alignment region of beta arrestin helix I suggests this structural element is absent in alpha arrestins. The conservation of PY motifs in alpha arrestins suggests they are functional.

Format: PDF Size: 101KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Adobe Acrobat Reader

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Additional file 5:

Phylogeny of canarypox virus alpha arrestin. A PDF file showing the phylogeny of canarypox virus (CNPV) alpha arrestin. This analysis shows CNPV arrestin is a highly divergent vertebrate Arrdc3 that was acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

Format: PDF Size: 38KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Adobe Acrobat Reader

Open Data

Additional file 6:

Helix I region in vertebrate arrestins. A PDF file showing evidence that helix I of visual/beta arrestins is absent in alpha arrestins. Protein sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction of alpha arrestins suggests they lack the helix I present in beta arrestins.

Format: PDF Size: 43KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Adobe Acrobat Reader

Open Data