Table 1

Effects of introduced fish on morphological and life-history traits.

Lake type


Trait

Fishless (SE)

Fish (SE)

N

F

p-value


Sb

0.770 (0.010)

0.740 (0.008)

121

5.33

0.0228

Sm

1.952 (0.021)

1.728 (0.021)

120

58.40

< 0.0001

S1

2.119 (0.025)

1.872 (0.025)

116

47.90

< 0.0001

S2

2.234 (0.028)

1.981 (0.030)

102

39.12

< 0.0001

S3

2.363 (0.033)

2.048 (0.032)

82

45.73

< 0.0001

C1

3.802 (0.261)

3.318 (0.272)

111

1.65

0.2015

C2

5.707 (0.522)

4.999 (0.569)

93

0.84

0.3621

C3

7.615 (0.680)

5.408 (0.712)

81

5.03

0.0279

OS1

0.782 (0.007)

0.723 (0.007)

109

34.85

< 0.0001

OS2

0.795 (0.007)

0.739 (0.008)

92

26.63

< 0.0001

OS3

0.786 (0.008)

0.728 (0.009)

79

24.15

< 0.0001

Am

10.676 (0.277)

9.741 (0.256)

108

6.15

0.0148

A1

14.893 (0.300)

13.963 (0.282)

105

5.10

0.0261

A2

19.246 (0.320)

17.748 (0.311)

93

11.29

0.0012

A3

23.152 (0.362)

22.042 (0.334)

77

5.08

0.0274

GRj

0.090 (0.003)

0.088 (0.003)

107

0.31

0.5801

GR1

0.020 (0.002)

0.019 (0.002)

116

0.11

0.7359

GR2

0.013 (0.001)

0.014 (0.002)

100

0.12

0.7289

GR3

0.010 (0.002)

0.010 (0.002)

78

0.00

0.9916

GRa

0.012 (0.001)

0.012 (0.001)

81

0.00

0.9916


Results of one-way mixed model NANOVAs with lake type (fishless and fish) and population nested within lake type as fixed effects. Least-squared means and associated standard errors are given for 19 morphological and life-history traits related to body size, clutch size, instar-specific ages, and instar-specific growth rates (see text for explanation of the trait designations). Number of observations (N), F statistic (F) and p-values for the main effect of lake type (significant values in bold).

Fisk et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:22   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-22

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