Table 3

Divergence time evaluation of Ursidae family (Mya)

fossil recordsa

protein electrophoresis analysis from Goldman, Giri and O'Brien (1989) [6]

partial mt gene analysis from Talbot and Shields (1996) [12]

two nuclear gene analysis from Yu et al (2004) [13]

mt genome analysis from this study


T. ornatus separation

5–7

10–15

12–13

6–8

10.91

six Ursine bears (or U. ursinus) divergence (node 5)

4–6

4–8

5–7

2–5

6.34

five Ursine bears (except U. ursinus) divergence (node 4)

-

-

6

-

6.13

U. malayanus divergence (node 3)

0.2–1 or 5–10

-

5

-

5.67

U. thibetanus U. americanus split (node 2)

1–3.5

-

5

-

5.19

U. arctos U. maritimus split (node 1)

0.07–0.1

2–3

1–2

1–1.5

1.32


- no divergence time evaluation in the study

a from Kurten 1968 [9]; Thenius 1979 [27]; Kurten and Anderson 1980 [35]; Savage and Russell 1983 [37]; Wayne et al. 1991 [26]

Yu et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:198   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-198

Open Data