A B-spline wing model. Circles are the ends of splines, and the large filled circles are the landmarks analyzed. The squares are the internal control points of the splines. The long veins are labeled according to the standard 'genetic' nomenclature used in the paper. C denotes the costa. The model is optimized for a wing of Drosophila affinis.
Houle et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:25 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-3-25