Open Access Research article

Sequence analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene can reveal the genetic structure and origin of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s.

Zhong-Zhen Wu1, Hong-Mei Li2, Shu-Ying Bin1, Jun Ma3, Hua-Liang He1, Xian-Feng Li1, Fei-Liang Gong1 and Jin-Tian Lin1*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute for Management of Invasive Alien Species, 314 Yingdong teaching building, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, PR China

2 College of Life Sciences, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, PR China

3 Guangdong Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center, Guangdong Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Tower A, Guojian Building, No.66 Huacheng Avenue, Zhujiang Xincheng, Guangzhou 510225, PR China

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014, 14:55  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-55

Published: 21 March 2014



The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., is one of the most important quarantine pests in many countries, including China. Although the oriental fruit fly has been investigated extensively, its origins and genetic structure remain disputed. In this study, the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene was used as a genetic marker to examine the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of B. dorsalis s.s. throughout its range in China and southeast Asia.


Haplotype networks and phylogenetic analysis indicated two distinguishable lineages of the fly population but provided no strong support for geographical subdivision in B. philippinensis. Demographic analysis revealed rapid expansion of B. dorsalis s.s. populations in China and Southeast Asia in the recent years. The greatest amount of genetic diversity was observed in Manila, Pattaya, and Bangkok, and asymmetric migration patterns were observed in different parts of China. The data collected here further show that B. dorsalis s.s. in Yunnan, Guangdong, and Fujian Provinces, and in Taiwan might have different origins within southeast Asia.


Using the mitochondrial ND1 gene, the results of the present study showed B. dorsalis s.s. from different parts of China to have different genetic structures and origins. B. dorsalis s.s. in China and southeast Asia was found to have experienced rapid expansion in recent years. Data further support the existence of two distinguishable lineages of B. dorsalis s.s. in China and indicate genetic diversity and gene flow from multiple origins.

The sequences in this paper have been deposited in GenBank/NCBI under accession numbers KC413034–KC413367.

Genetic structure; Origin; Bactrocera dorsalis s.s; Mitochondrial ND1