Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Evolutionary Biology and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Research article

Phylogenomics of strongylocentrotid sea urchins

Kord M Kober12* and Giacomo Bernardi1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University Of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA

2 Department of Physiological Nursing, University Of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:88  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-88

Published: 23 April 2013



Strongylocentrotid sea urchins have a long tradition as model organisms for studying many fundamental processes in biology including fertilization, embryology, development and genome regulation but the phylogenetic relationships of the group remain largely unresolved. Although the differing isolating mechanisms of vicariance and rapidly evolving gamete recognition proteins have been proposed, a stable and robust phylogeny is unavailable.


We used a phylogenomic approach with mitochondrial and nuclear genes taking advantage of the whole-genome sequencing of nine species in the group to establish a stable (i.e. concordance in tree topology among multiple lies of evidence) and robust (i.e. high nodal support) phylogenetic hypothesis for the family Strongylocentrotidae. We generated eight draft mitochondrial genome assemblies and obtained 13 complete mitochondrial genes for each species. Consistent with previous studies, mitochondrial sequences failed to provide a reliable phylogeny. In contrast, we obtained a very well-supported phylogeny from 2301 nuclear genes without evidence of positive Darwinian selection both from the majority of most-likely gene trees and the concatenated fourfold degenerate sites: ((P. depressus, (M. nudus, M. franciscanus), (H. pulcherrimus, (S. purpuratus, (S. fragilis, (S. pallidus, (S. droebachiensis, S. intermedius)). This phylogeny was consistent with a single invasion of deep-water environments followed by a holarctic expansion by Strongylocentrotus. Divergence times for each species estimated with reference to the divergence times between the two major clades of the group suggest a correspondence in the timing with the opening of the Bering Strait and the invasion of the holarctic regions.


Nuclear genome data contains phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this group. However, mitochondrial genome data does not. Vicariance can explain major patterns observed in the phylogeny. Other isolating mechanisms are appropriate to explore in this system to help explain divergence patterns not well supported by vicariance, such as the effects of rapidly evolving gamete recognition proteins on isolating populations. Our findings of a stable and robust phylogeny, with the increase in mitochondrial and nuclear comparative genomic data, provide a system in which we can enhance our understanding of molecular evolution and adaptation in this group of sea urchins.

Strongylocentrotus; Phylogenomics; Sea urchin; Holarctic expansion; Bering Strait; Vicariant divergence