Figure 3.

Brood grooming, brood removal and fungal outgrowth in an ant with both, naked and cocooned pupae. (A) Naked pupae (NP, lighter colours) and cocooned pupae (CP, darker colours) of F. selysi were groomed at similar frequencies (proportion of times grooming events occurred on total observations), and independently of brood treatment (sham control: grey tones, dead fungus: light green tones, live fungus: dark green tones). Means + s.e.m. are given. (B,C) Cumulative proportion of naked pupae (B) and cocooned pupae (C) removed from the brood chamber over the course of the experimental period, for each treatment (same colour scheme as in (A)). Black bars depict the proportion of removed pupae that showed fungal outgrowth on each day. Whereas fungus-exposed naked pupae were removed more quickly and more frequently than sham controls (B), cocooned pupae were not removed differently according to treatment (C). Different letters denote statistical differences at the significance level α = 0.05 level (ns: not significant) for grooming frequency (A) and for brood removal rates (B,C).

Tragust et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:225   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-225
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