Figure 4.

Isoleucine, valine, and leucine synthesis pathway. Metabolites – I: pyruvate; II: threonine; III: 2-oxobutanoate; IV: (S)-2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate; V: (R)-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate; VI: (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylpentanoate; VII: (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate; VIII: isoleucine; IX: 2-(alpha-hydroxyethyl) thiamine diphosphate; X: (S)-2-acetolactate; XI: 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate; XII: (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate; XIII: 2-oxoisovalerate; XIV: valine; XV: (2S)-2-isopropylmalate; XVI: 2-isopropylmaleate; XVII: (2R,3S)-3-isopropylmalate; XVIII: (2S)-2-isopropyl-3-oxosuccinate; XIX: 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate; XX: leucine. Enzymes – 1.2.4.1: pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha; 4.3.1.19: threonine ammonia-lyase; 2.2.1.6: acetolactate synthase small and large subunits; 1.1.1.86: ketol-acid reductoisomerase; 4.2.1.9: dihydroxy-acid dehydratase; 2.6.1.42: branched-chain amino acid transaminase; 2.3.3.13: 2-isopropylmalate synthase; 4.2.1.33: 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small and large subunits; 1.1.1.85: 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. Abbreviations as for Figure 1.

Alves et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:190   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-190
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