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Evolution of microgastropods (Ellobioidea, Carychiidae): integrating taxonomic, phylogenetic and evolutionary hypotheses

Alexander M Weigand1*, Adrienne Jochum1, Rajko Slapnik2, Jan Schnitzler13, Eugenia Zarza13 and Annette Klussmann-Kolb13

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Phylogeny and Systematics, Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Biosciences, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Straße 13, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

2 Institute of Biology, Center for Scientific Research of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Novi trg 2, p.p. 306, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia

3 Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:18  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-18

Published: 23 January 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Figure *.tif. Schematic visualization for the constrained model selection approaches. The unconstrained phylogenetic hypothesis was tested against four competing evolutionary scenarios in a model selection approach (refer to Table  3). Both scenarios concerning Carychium microgastropods are depicted, since the constraints likewise affected the splitting order of ancient nodes. E = Europe; A = Asia; N+C = North+Central America excl. C. nannodes; N = C. nannodes. Black dots indicate posterior probability ≥ 0.98. A: phylogenetic unconstrained hypothesis. A1a = C. cf. pessimum; A1b = C. nipponense; A2 = Carychium sp.3; A3 = C. cf. noduliferum. B: monophyletic Asian Carychium. C: monophyletic American Carychium. A1 = C. cf. pessimum + C. nipponense; A2 = C. cf. noduliferum + Carychium sp.3.

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Additional file 2:

Figure *.tif. Bioclimatic niche models. The suitable bioclimatic conditions of the native monophyletic North + Central American (A; red) and European (B; yellow) clades are illustrated. Niche projections for these clades and between the areas are depicted in C and D. Black triangles indicated occurrence data of native (in A and B) and schematic snails of introduced taxa (in C). A: Potential distribution of the native North + Central American clade. B: Potential distribution of the native European clade. C: Projected distribution of the European clade in North + Central America. Non-native European Carychium minimum (CM) and C. tridentatum (CT) populations are indicated. D: Projected distribution of the North + Central American clade in Europe.

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Additional file 3:

Figure *.tif. Distribution of bio2 (diurnal range) in North and Central America (TIFF 807 kb). North and Central American diurnal range values have a minimum of 1.8 (black) and a maximum of 21.4 (white) degrees Celsius (°C).

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Additional file 4:

Table *.xlsx. Non-native Carychium populations in North America. Locality information and literature sources for non-native Carychium populations (based on morphospecies IDs) in North America are listed. Specimens from localities indicated by an asterisk (*) are validated by DNA barcoding as the respective Carychium species [111-116].

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Additional file 5:

Table *.xlsx. BOLD barcode identifier (COI) and NCBI accession numbers (16S and H3). EL = evolutionary lineage; # = specimen number. 1 type locality population, regarded as C. costaricanum. 2 cave population from region mentioned in phenotype description of Z. isselianum. 3 type locality population of Z. spelaeum schmidti. 4 cave population of Z. suarezi from cave locality mentioned in phenotype description, 5 H3 sequence of #152 upon request (too short for GenBank deposition).

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