Variations in wing colour patterns in the pale grass blue Z. maha. The scale bar applies to all the panels in this figure, except for the right panel in D. The aberrant colour-pattern elements are boxed in B-E and are indicated with arrows. (A) Field-collected normal colour patterns. (B) F1 and F2 aberrant individuals from the May 2011 samples. The arrows and boxed areas indicate abnormalities. (C) Aberrations in Okinawa individuals obtained in the external exposure experiment. (D) Aberrations in Okinawa individuals fed with the host plant collected from the Iitate-flatland (FL) and Fukushima. (E) Aberrations induced by 25 mM or 50 mM EMS. Details of the experimental conditions and colour-pattern analysis will be published elsewhere. (F) Temperature-shock (TS) type. Inward TS type (left): Okinawa F1, cold-shocked at 4°C for 10 days. Outward TS type (middle): Okinawa F5 (selection line ), cold-shocked at −2°C for 3 days. Reduction TS type (right): Okinawa F1, cold-shocked at −2°C for 3 days. (G) Panda type: Okinawa F2 from a sibling cross.
Hiyama et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:168 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-168