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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Localized versus generalist phenotypes in a broadly distributed tropical mammal: how is intraspecific variation distributed across disparate environments?

Diego F Alvarado-Serrano*, Lucia Luna and L Lacey Knowles

Author Affiliations

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079, USA

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:160  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-160

Published: 31 July 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Position of individuals of A. mollis in geographic, morphological, and environmental space. Three-D scatterplot of populations according to their geographic coordinates and their individuals’ mean score on the first component of the Between Groups-PCA [46] on size-corrected shape data (a). For comparison a similar three-D scatterplot of associated environmental variation among sampling localities, summarized by the first principal component of a PCA on all 21 environmental variables (Additional file 3: Table S3), is presented in (b). The environmental variation is also represented by a scatterplot of the first and second principal component of this latter PCA (c). Note that a MANOVA on these PC scores showed that ecosystems are significantly different from each other in their environmental conditions (Wilks’ λ < 0.01, F5/34 = 8.56, p < 0.01). The position of puna individuals is indicated by the dashed ellipse. Symbols follow Figure 1.

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Additional file 2:

Matrix of pairwise genetic distances between A. mollis populations. Genetic distances, estimated in Arlequin [114] as average number of pairwise nucleotide differences between populations based on a 1123 bp-region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, is presented in (a) for populations with genetic data available (see Table 2). The dotted lines on perimeter of the plot frame point to the separation between populations according to the ecosystem they pertain to. The location of these populations with genetic data is shown in the ecosystem map in (b) (abbreviations as in Figure 1), with the genetically most different populations indicated by colored arrows corresponding to colors used in x and y axes in (a); specific locations of the numbered populations can be found in the appendix.

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Additional file 3:

Extended summary of environmental principal components and PLS axes.

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Additional file 4:

Description of the location of the 54 landmarks (L.) used in the study.

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Additional file 5:

Summary of allometry analyses.

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