Table 2

Calibration hypotheses employed to time-calibrate the initial phylogeny of the genus Carabus and related taxa based on the nd5 gene

Evolutionary event: node

Calibration event

Event age (Ma)

Priors on

node ages

Prior 95% age interval


Split between two Canarian endemic species: Carabus (Nesaeocarabus) coarctatus

and C. (N.) abbreviates: C

Volcanic emergence

of Gran Canaria

14.5

Uniform

(a = 0, b = 14.5)

0.03-14.14


Carabus (Autocarabus) cancellatus fossil: F

Messinian deposits

of Cantal (France)

5

Lognormal (μ = 25,σ = 1.5, offset = 5)

5.4-158.5


Radiation of Damaster: J1

Final disconnection of Japan from mainland

3.5

Truncated Normal (μ = 3.5,σ = 1, a = 0.1, b = 1000)

1.55-5.46


Radiation of Leptocarabus: J2

Final disconnection of Japan from mainland

3.5

Truncated Normal (μ = 3.5,σ = 1, a = 0.1, b = 1000)

1.55-5.46


Radiation of Ohomopterus: J3

Final disconnection of Japan from mainland

3.5

Truncated Normal (μ = 3.5,σ = 1, a = 0.1, b = 1000)

1.55-5.46


Split between subgenus Isiocarabus and Ohomopterus: J4

Initial disconnection of Japan from mainland

15

Normal (μ = 15,σ = 1)

13.04-16.96


Split between Carabus (Eurycarabus) genei from Corsica and North African Eurycarabus: M2

Opening Gibraltar strait

5.33

Exponential (μ = 0.5, offset = 5.3)

5.31-7.14


Split between two Carabus (Rhabdotocarabus) melancholicus subspecies: M3

Opening Gibraltar strait

5.33

Exponential (μ = 0.5, offset = 5.3)

5.31-7.14


Andújar et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012 12:40   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-40

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