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Open Access Research article

Degradation of sexual reproduction in Veronica filiformis after introduction to Europe

Romain Scalone12 and Dirk C Albach3*

Author Affiliations

1 Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Bentzelweg 9, Mainz, 55099, Germany

2 Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Box 7043, Ulls väg 16, Uppsala, 75007, Sweden

3 Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften (IBU), Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky-Str. 9-11, Oldenburg, 26111, Germany

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012, 12:233  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-233

Published: 3 December 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Information on the origin of samples used in the study. The population in bold is the population which did not produce flowers during our crossing experiment. Populations in italics are the populations used for pollen and ovule counts. Individuals crossed refers to the number of individuals used in the crossing experiment. Notes refer to the number of investigated flowers (for mutants), buds, capsules and seeds. 1 = years obtained from literature [44,45]; 2 = years obtained from observations of local botanists (M. Thiv, Stuttgart, pers. comm.); 1st obs.= date of the first observations in the introduced area; Pop. area = population size estimation; Cauc. - Caucasus, Sam.-Jav. - Samtskhe-Javakehti.

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Additional file 2:

Relationship between genetic and geographic distances within twenty introduced populations of V. filiformis. Spearman correlation between genetic and geographic distances gave r = 0.2925, based on 190 comparisons in the German transect, p < 0.0001.

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Additional file 3:

Morphology of normal and abnormal flowers in V. filiformis. A. Normal and radial flower with four petals, two equal stamens and one style. B. Normal flower conserved in alcohol. C. Androecium-mutant flowers observed in the introduced area (C1. Flower with one long and one short filament, C2. Flower without filament, C3. Flower with one stamen, C4. Flower without stamen, C5. Flower with three stamens). The scale corresponds to a length of 1 mm; d = dorsal; b = basal.

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Additional file 4:

Pollen and ovule production inV. filiformis. Nflowers = number of flowers dissected; Pollen = pollen number; Ovule = ovule number; S.D. = standard deviation; % S.D. = percentage of the standard deviation. The uncapitalized color names correspond to the different crossing groups (Cros. group) whereas the capitalized color names correspond to the genetic clusters (Gen. group), as presented in Figures 2 and 3.

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Additional file 5:

Results from nested ANOVA for A) pollen data and B) ovule data. d.f. = degree of freedom; SS = sum of squares; MSS = mean sum of squares; Significance level: * = P ≤ 0.05, ** = P ≤ 0.01.

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Additional file 6:

Seed size and seed number per capsule in V. filiformis. Ncaps. = number of capsules collected in the native area or obtained during the crossing experiment; NSeeds/Caps. = number of seeds per capsule and per population; S.D. = standard deviation; % S.D. = percentage of the standard deviation; Total Nseed = total number of seeds measured per population. Seed length and width were measured under a graduated microscope and converted to mm.

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Additional file 7:

Relationships between the percentage of androecium mutant-flower, pollen and ovule number and genetic data. A. Relationship between the percentage of androecium mutant-flowers per population and pollen production. B. Relationship between the percentage of androecium mutant-flowers per population and ovule production. C1. Relationship between pollen production and the number of polymorphic AFLP-fragment per population. C2. Relationship between pollen production and the number of fixed AFLP-fragment per population. D1. Relationship between the number of clones per population and pollen production. D2. Relationship between the number of clones per population and seed number per capsule according to maternal population. E1. Relationship between the number of polymorphic AFLP-fragment per population and the percentage of androecium mutant-flowers. E2. Relationship between the number of polymorphic AFLP-fragment per population and the flower number. Spearman correlations are indicated for each relationship as “R2 =”.

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