Effect of Dicer knockdown on honeybee embryo development. (A) Semi-quantitative PCR validation of reduction in Am-dicer mRNA levels in siRNA treated embryos compared to controls. (B-C) Examples of stage 9 (48 hour) embryos following siRNA targeted knockdown of Am-dicer. Head appendages are missing (asterisk), as are the procephalic lobes (arrowhead). The amnion covering the yolk is reduced in siRNA treated embryos (line, compare to control (D)). (D) Stage 9 embryos injected with control siRNA. (E) Anterior region of a stage 9 embryo injected with a non-targeted siRNA. (F) Closer view of the anterior of a siRNA-dicer injected embryo revealing loss of anterior appendages. (G) The posterior end of a control injected embryo. (H) The posterior terminal region of an siRNA dicer treated embryo, showing a reduced amnion (line) and loss of tracheal pits. Abbreviations: labrum (lb), mandible (mn), maxillae (mx), thorax segments (T1-3), abdominal segments (A1-9), terminal segment (T), antenna (ant), procephalic lobe (pc), tracheal pit (TP), amnion (amn).
Zondag et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012 12:211 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-211