Population E2 adapted to low density growth with tradeoffs at the standard high density. Competitions against the EM ancestor were performed using the same set of acclimation cultures that were combined 1:1 and diluted to varying degrees (indicated by the shade of grey). Note E2 fitness at generation 60 is more than four-fold higher at the lowest versus the highest starting density, and that this low-density specificity waned as they evolved. Data represent the mean and standard error.
Marx BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012 12:109 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-109