Table 2

Accessions of Dryopteris and Polystichum included in this study
Species Ploidy level (reference) Collection locality # gapCp copies # pgiC copies plastid? Padre?
D. abbreviata 2x [51] Turkey ✓ (1)
D. affinis 2x, 3x [56] Spain ✓ (2) **
D. alpestris 2x [57] China ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. antarctica unknown Reunion ✓ (2) ✓ (3)
D. aquilinoides unknown Reunion ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. arguta 1 2x [58] Oregon ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. arguta 2 2x [58] Oregon ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. assimilisa 2x [59] Russia ✓ (1)
D. austriacab 4x [40] Caucasus region ✓ (1)
D. campyloptera 1 4x [23] North Carolina ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. campyloptera 2 4x [23] North Carolina ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. carthusiana 1 4x; [51] New York ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. carthusiana 2 4x; [51] Washington ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. carthusiana 3 4x; [51] Wisconsin ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. carthusiana 4 4x; [51] Wisconsin ✓ (2)
D. caucasica 2x [35] Turkey ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. celsa 1 4x [24] Georgia ✓ (1) ✓ (2)
D. celsa 2 4x [24] South Carolina ✓ (2)
D. celsa 3 4x [24] Louisiana ✓ (2)
D. chrysocoma 2x [60] Taiwan ✓ (1) ✓ (3)
D. clintoniana 1 6x [24] New York ✓ (3) ✓ (3)
D. clintoniana 2 6x [24] New York ✓ (3)
D. crispifolia 4x [59] BPSSE; W. Europe
D. cristata 1 4x; [51] South Carolina ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. cristata 2 4x; [51] Iowa ✓ (2)
D. cristata 3 4x; [51] Pennsylvania ✓ (2)
D. cristata 4 4x; [51] Wisconsin ✓ (1)
D. cristata 5 4x; [51] New York ✓ (1)
D. cristata 6 4x; [51] Michigan ✓ (2)
D. cristata 7 4x; [51] Michigan ✓ (2)
D. dilatata 1 4x; [51] Germany ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. dilatata 2 4x; [51] Italy ✓ (1)
D. dilatata 3 4x; [51] France ✓ (2)
D. expansa 1 2x [58] British Columbia ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. expansa 2 2x [58] Washington ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. expansa 3 2x [58] Oregon ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. expansa 4 2x [58] Washington ✓ (1)
D. filix-mas 1 4x; [51] British Columbia ✓ (2) ✓ (1)
D. filix-mas 2 4x; [51] Washington ✓ (2) ✓ (2)
D. fragrans 1 2x [58] Michigan ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. fragrans 2 2x; [51] Wisconsin ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. futura 2x [61] Guatemala ✓ (3)
D. goldiana 1 2x [22] North Carolina ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. goldiana 2 2x [22] Wisconsin ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. goldiana 3 2x [22] New York ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. goldiana 4 2x [22] New York ✓ (1)
D. goldiana 5 2x [22] Michigan ✓ (1)
D. guanchica 4x [59] Cabildo of Tenerife
D. huberi unknown Brazil ✓ (2)
D. intermedia 1 2x [22] North Carolina ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. intermedia 2 2x [22] Wisconsin ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. intermedia 3 2x [22] New York ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. intermedia 4 2x [22] New York ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. intermedia 5 2x [22] New York ✓ (1)
D. intermedia 6 2x [22] Michigan ✓ (1)
D. ludoviciana A208 2x [22] South Carolina *
D. ludoviciana 1 2x [22] South Carolina ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. ludoviciana 2 2x [22] Alabama ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. ludoviciana 3 2x [22] Alabama ✓ (1)
D. ludoviciana 4 2x [22] Alabama ✓ (1)
D. ludoviciana 5 2x [22] Alabama ✓ (1)
D. marginalis 2x [58] South Carolina ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
D. monticola unknown Japan ✓ (2)
D. muenchii 1 3x [62] Mexico ✓ (3) ✓ (3)
D. muenchii 2 3x [62] Mexico ✓ (3) ✓ (3)
D. oligodonta 2x [59] Cabildo of Tenerife ✓ (1)
D. oreades 2x [63] Caucasus region **
D. pallida 2x [58] AFSSE; W. Europe ✓ (1)
D. remota 1 3x; [51] Germany ✓ (2)
D. remota 2 3x; [51] Asia ✓ (2)
D. scottii 4x [60] Taiwan ✓ (2)
D. tokyoensis 2x [58] Japan ✓ (1) ✓ (1)
Polystichum andersonii Washington ✓ (1)
Polystichum munitum Washington ✓ (1)

Numbers after species names indicate that multiple accessions of that species were included. Collection locations are given, and inclusion in plastid, pgiC, gapCp, and PADRE datasets is indicated. AFSSE and BPSSE indicate species that were obtained as spores from the American Fern Society Spore Exchange and British Pteridological Society Spore Exchange, respectively. These spores were germinated and grown for use by Geiger and Ranker [64], and DNA material later provided to us. Number of copies of gapCp and pgiC are given in parentheses if we successfully sequenced that region for an accession. Ploidy level is given when known, with references. See Additional file 1: Table 1 for voucher information.

* The pgiC sequence for D. ludoviciana A208 was obtained from Genbank, and we included it in the current study as it was the basis for a recent rejection of the “semicristata” hypothesis [49].

** We were unable to sequence pgiC from our D. affinis and D. oreades accessions, and so obtained pgiC sequences for these taxa from Genbank. These sequences are therefore not from the same accessions as the gapCp and plastid sequences.

a synonymous with D. expansa.

b synonymous with D. dilatata.

Sessa et al.

Sessa et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012 12:104   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-104

Open Data