Mismatch distributions and Bayesian demographic analyses of E. formosa COII sequence data. (A) The North-central clade has a multimodal distribution that differs from sudden demographic and spatial expansion models. (B) The widespread clade exhibits a distinct unimodal distribution. (C) The EBSP of the North-central clade demonstrates relatively stationary populations between 0.6 and 2 Mys, with a demographic expansion over much of the Pleistocene glacial cycles. (D) The EBSP of the widespread clade indicates a population growth beginning near the end of the glacial Würm period (0.03 Mya) and into the Holocene interglacial period.
Huang and Lin BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:94 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-94