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Open Access Research article

Evolutionary origin of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vertebrate innate immune system

Adriana M Montaño12, Fumi Tsujino, Naoyuki Takahata1 and Yoko Satta1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biosystems Science, School of Advanced Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Shonan Village, Hayama, 240-0193, Japan

2 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, 1100 S. Grand Blvd, Doisy Research Center, Saint Louis, MO, 63104, USA

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:79  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-79

Published: 25 March 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table of vertebrate PGRP nomenclature. Nomenclatures and resources of vertebrate PGRP sequences used in this study.

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Additional file 2:

Table of invertebrate PGRP nomenclature. Nomenclatures and resources of invertebrate PGRP sequences used in this study.

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Additional file 3:

Alignment of vertebrate PGRPs. Alignment of the C-terminal amino acid sequence of PGRPs from various vertebrate species. A dash represents the same amino acid as the above.

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Open Data

Additional file 4:

Alignment of invertebrate PGRPs. Alignment of the C-terminal amino acid sequence of PGRPs from various insects species. A dash represents the same amino acid as the above.

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Open Data

Additional file 5:

Reconciled gene tree and species tree of vertebrate PGRPs. NOTUNG analysis predicted 16 duplications and 42 losses. Two of the duplication events are domain duplications and three duplication events are possibly due to allelic divergence. D/L score = 66 [25].

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Additional file 6:

Reconciled gene tree and species tree of invertebrate PGRPs. NOTUNG analysis predicted 30 duplications and 53 losses. D/L score = 98 [25].

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Open Data

Additional file 7:

Average orthologs divergence tree of vertebrate PGRPs. The EvolMAP analysis predicted 14 gains and 14 losses. In-paralogs, diverged in-paralogs and ambiguous gains constituted 36%, 57% and 7% of total gains, respectively. Gene gains (+) and gene losses (-) are depicted for each branch. Number of in-paralogs, diverged in-paralogs and ambiguous gains are indicated below or next to each gene gain [26].

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Open Data

Additional file 8:

Average orthologs divergence tree of invertebrate PGRPs. The EvolMAP analysis predicted 26 gains and 8 losses. In-paralogs, and diverged in-paralogs gains constituted 27%, and 73% of total gains, respectively. Gene gains (+) and gene losses (-) are depicted for each branch. Number of in-paralogs, diverged in-paralogs and ambiguous gains are indicated below or next to each gene gain [26].

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Open Data

Additional file 9:

Alignment of PGRP ancestral sequences. Alignment of ancestral sequences of PGRP-L and PGRP-S. A dash means the same amino acid as the above. A blue star indicates the amino acid position responsible for Zn2+ ligand binding, whereas a red star indicates the amino acid position responsible for amidase activity. These sites are inferred from the sequences of T7 lysozyme of bacteriophage.

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Open Data