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Open Access Research article

Queen pheromones in Temnothorax ants: control or honest signal?

Elisabeth Brunner1*, Johannes Kroiss12, Andreas Trindl1 and Jürgen Heinze1

Author Affiliations

1 LS Biologie I, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany

2 Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745 Jena, Germany

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:55  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-55

Published: 1 March 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Gas chromatography profiles. Representative gas chromatography profiles of queens from six Temnothorax species. Peaks used for the statistical analysis are marked with numbers. Identification of peaks is given in Additional file 3.

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Additional file 2:

Proportion of peak areas. Proportions (%) of peak areas in chromatograms from cuticular hydrocarbon extracts of queens and workers in six Temnothorax species. Box plots show medians and 25% and 75% quartiles. Whiskers depict the range of 90% of all cases. Extreme outliers are denoted by circles. P-values of substances differing significantly between the various groups are given in Additional file 3.

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Additional file 3:

Table S1 - Identification of cuticular compounds. Identification of cuticular compounds and differences of their relative amounts between queens (Q) and workers (W) in five Temnothorax species. The number of samples of queens and workers is given in parentheses. Peak numbers correspond with numbers in Additional file 1 and 2. Directions of difference are shown in Additional file 2. Bold p-values from Mann-Whitney U-tests are significant at the 5% probability after Bonferroni's correction (p' < 0.001); n.s = not significant. *Due to very low abundance, peaks marked with a star could not be identified. They had exactly the same retention time in GC as peaks in other species, which could be identified. We therefore assume these compounds to be chemically identical.

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Additional file 4:

Phylogenetic tree of Temnothorax species. Phylogenetic tree of Temnothorax species. Majority rule consensus tree recovered in a Bayesian analysis (4,000,000 generations) with the GTR + I + G model. The tree is based on 651 base pairs of the mitochondrial CO I gene and numbers represent clade credibility values (J. Beibl, pers. comm.).

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