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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Spore development and nuclear inheritance in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Julie Marleau1, Yolande Dalpé12, Marc St-Arnaud1 and Mohamed Hijri1*

Author Affiliations

1 Université de Montréal, Département de sciences biologiques, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, 4101 rue Sherbrooke Est, QC, H1X 2B2, Canada

2 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 960 Carling Ave. Ottawa, On, K1A 0C6, Canada

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:51  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-51

Published: 24 February 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Example of a z-stack series of Glomus diaphanum live spore observed with a confocal microscope. Nuclei were visualized as large green spots with SytoGreen fluorescent dye, while mitochondria are shown as small green spots. The movie was acquired at 1 frame every 0.15 μm for a total of 260 frames and displayed at a rate of 5 frames/sec.

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Open Data

Additional file 2:

3D reconstruction of 260 optical sections with z-resolution of 0.15 μm, showing a full turn of G. diaphanum live spore with nuclei color indexed. The movie is displayed at a rate of 5 frames/sec.

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Open Data

Additional file 3:

Merged image of 100 optical sections of sister spores of G. diaphanum showing heterogeneity of nuclear content. Nuclei were stained with SytoGreen fluorescent dye. Scale bar represents 47.62 μm.

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Open Data

Additional file 4:

The mean number of newly produced spores plotted against time (days) of G. irregulare treated with aphidicolin diluted in DMSO or DMSO alone as a control on six replicates each. Red and blue curves represent aphidicolin and control treatments, respectively.

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Open Data

Additional file 5:

The number of nuclei per spore plotted against the diameter of spores of G. irregulare treated with aphidicolin (red squares, n = 22) and the control (blue triangles, n = 68).

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Open Data

Additional file 6:

Time-lapse series on G. diaphanum live spore. Nuclei were visualized as large green spots with SytoGreen fluorescent dye, while mitochondria were stained with MitoTracker and are shown as small red spots. The movie was acquired at 1 frame every 5 min for a total of 90 min and displayed at a rate of 5 frames/sec.

Format: MOV Size: 329KB Download file

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Open Data

Additional file 7:

Merged image of 150 optical sections of non-germinating spore of G. diaphanum showing nuclei in a degenerating phase. Nuclei were stained with SytoGreen fluorescent dye. Scale bar represents 19.71 μm.

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Open Data

Additional file 8:

G. diaphanum spore observed with confocal microscope where nuclei were visualized by SytoGreen fluorescent dye (green spots) showing direct connection of spore and the subtending hyphal cytoplasm (arrows). A, xy focal plane; B, yz projection; and C, xz projection. Scale bar in panel A represents 17.93 μm.

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Additional file 9:

AMF spore development of G. irregulare over time, viability and germination rates.

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Additional file 10:

Cell wall structure of G. intraradices spores of different ages. A, Open 30 day-old spore with subtending hypha, outside hyaline spore wall and inside pale yellow pigmented spore wall. B, Closer view of 60 day-old spore wall with bi-layered outer walls and laminated inner wall. C, Walls of 90 day-old mature spore with bi-layered outer wall and multi-laminated inner wall. Images were taken with DIC optical microscope. Scale bars represent 20 μm.

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Open Data