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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Phenotypic plasticity can facilitate adaptive evolution in gene regulatory circuits

Carlos Espinosa-Soto12*, Olivier C Martin3 and Andreas Wagner124

Author Affiliations

1 University of Zurich, Dept. of Biochemistry, Bldg. Y27 Winterthurerstrasse 190 CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland

2 The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Quartier Sorge, Batiment Genopode, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

3 INRA, UMR 0320/UMR 8120 Génétique Végétale, F-91190 Gif-sur- Yvette, France

4 The Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:5  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-5

Published: 6 January 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Figure S1. Gene circuits exploring a genotype network find genotypes with new alternative phenotypes faster than they find new genotype networks, for different parameter combinations.

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Additional file 2:

Figure S2. Mutations and perturbations in the initial condition s0 produce the same phenotypes more often than expected by chance.

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Additional file 3:

Analysis S1. Genetic distance to a genotype network decreases with increasing phenotypic penetrance, for alternative phenotypes produced after two-gene perturbations in the initial condition.

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Additional file 4:

Analysis S2. High penetrance increases the number of mutational paths to a new genotype network.

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Additional file 5:

Analysis S3. Mutations that increase in penetrance facilitate access to a new genotype network.

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