Phylogenetic reconstructions of the Lactarius lineage (Russulaceae) based on ITS, showing putative evolutional events in relation with host specificity. A: concatenate analysis of alnicolous species (ITS + RPB2 + V9). B: concatenate analysis (ITS + RPB2) of Lactarius subgen. Russulares showing positions of each clades of alnicolous species within the genus. Red: species associated with Alnus sect. Alnus.; Green: species associated with Alnus sect. Alnobetula. Green and red stars show putative basal association with Alnus sect. Alnobetula (with possible co-speciation) and sect. Alnus respectively. Arrows show events of speciation associated with host specificity; red arrow: host-dependent radiation with Alnus subgen. Alnus; green arrow: host shifts from Alnus subgen. Alnus to A. alnobetula.
Rochet et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:40 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-40