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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the wedge-tailed sabrewing (Campylopterus curvipennis)

Clementina González12, Juan Francisco Ornelas1* and Carla Gutiérrez-Rodríguez1

Author Affiliations

1 Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología AC, carretera antigua a Coatepec No. 351, El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz 91070 México

2 Posgrado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México, D. F., 04510 México

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:38  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-38

Published: 8 February 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Pairwise comparisons between populations of Campylopterus curvipennis. Pairwise FST values (above diagonal) of mtDNA and pairwise RST values (below diagonal) of microsatellites between populations. Values statistically significant at P < 0.001 are indicated in bold.

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Additional file 2:

Neighbour-joining tree of sampled locations based on pairwise RST. Analysis obtained from microsatellite data showing YUC group clustering together in a basal position, and sampling localities of SMO group clustering in a geographically unresolved clade. Sampled locations with only one individual were excluded from the analysis.

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Additional file 3:

Results of the coalescent-based simulation on phenotypic traits. Estimates of s of Slatkin and Maddison from 10,000 coalescent simulated gene trees to test the probability of complete sorting of vocal characters (A and B) and morphological characters (C and D) in wedge-tailed sabrewing populations. Regarding vocal characters, there is a low probability of fixation in nuclear genes under neutrality regardless of the assumption of dichotomous branching (A) or the simultaneous model of divergence (B). In contrast, the probabilities that nuclear genes would be fixed under neutrality are high for morphological characters, regardless of the assumption of dichotomous branching (C) or the simultaneous model of divergence (D). This suggests that divergent selection has caused the pattern of vocal variation among populations, but the null hypothesis that morphological divergence resulted from drift was not rejected. Arrows indicate the expected value of s in a completely sorted tree.

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Additional file 4:

Geographic distribution of Campylopterus curvipennis species complex. Distribution of Campylopterus curvipennis species complex based on museum (MZFC) and bibliographic records [32,59], showing the disjunct distribution of three subspecies. Blue = C. c. curvipennis, yellow = C. c. excellens, red = C. c. pampa.

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Additional file 5:

Alignment of ATPase 6-8 and control region mtDNA sequences. Alignment of the concatenated ATPase 6-8 (1-875 bp) and control region (876-1407 bp) mtDNA sequences for 160 individuals of Campylopterus curvipennis and three outgroups used in the phylogenetic analyses.

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