Co-infection of two feminising parasites without superinfection. Both parasites have the N. granulosis parameters ε = 0.84 and θ = 0.66 while the host has the G. duebeni parameters a = 2, g = 0.27, b0 = 0.12 and s = 0.000042. Parasite 1 is the ancestral N. granulosis strain with α = 0.001 and β = 0, while parasite 2 is a mutant, horizontally transmitted strain with α = 0.08 and β = 0.0002. When parasite 2 is incapable of superinfection (μ = 0), it is excluded by parasite 1.
Ironside et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:370 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-370