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Open Access Research article

Adaptive divergence of the moor frog (Rana arvalis) along an acidification gradient

Sandra Hangartner1*, Anssi Laurila2 and Katja Räsänen1

Author Affiliations

1 EAWAG, Department of Aquatic Ecology, and ETH-Zurich, Institute of Integrative Biology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland

2 Population and Conservation Biology/Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:366  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-366

Published: 19 December 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Calculation of habitat indices.

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Additional file 2:

Details on the two principal component analyses and the resulting factor loadings. Eigenvalues > 1 and factor loadings > |0.6| are highlighted in bold.

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Additional file 3:

F tests and AIC values for larval traits from mixed model analyses of variance including habitat indices as a covariate. Results are shown for (log) a) metamorphic mass, b) larval period and c) growth rate. Significant effects (P < 0.05) are highlighted in bold. The variable with the highest F value (and the lowest AIC value) is considered most important. See Additional file 1 and 2 for description of habitat indices.

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Additional file 4:

Correlation matrix for habitat variables, embryonic survival and larval traits. Significant Pearson r values (P < 0.05) are highlighted in bold. The correlations are based on population means (habitat variables: N = 9, larval traits: N = 8).

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Additional file 5:

Mixed model analysis of variance for larval traits including (log) initial size as a covariate. Results are shown for (log) a) metamorphic mass, b) larval period and c) growth rate in eight R. arvalis populations occurring along a pH gradient. Significant effects are highlighted in bold.

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