Figure 4.

Path diagram of the relationships between morphology, swimming speed, and fitness. The results of model 5 (Table 5) are illustrated here. Double-headed arrows represent covariances (range: 0.551 - 0.854), and all of them are significant. Values near single-headed arrows are maximum likelihood parameter estimates of partial regression coefficients (direct effects. Arrows lacking a number represent causal paths set to zero (Table 5). Arrow thickness is proportional to the strength of relationship. Black arrows present significant parameter estimates, and grey arrows represent relationships that are not significant. The P-value of the dark grey arrow (head length → fitness) is 0.06. Note that the causal paths between head length → fitness and head length → maximum swim speed are significant in model 9, which had the best AIC score (Table 6).

Calsbeek and Kuchta BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:353   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-353
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