Open Access Research article

Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

Yann Moalic1, Sophie Arnaud-Haond1*, Cécile Perrin2, Gareth A Pearson2 and Ester A Serrao2

Author Affiliations

1 IFREMER, Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer, centre de Brest, BP70, 29280 Plouzané, France

2 CCMAR, CIMAR, University of Algarve, Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:33  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-33

Published: 31 January 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Figure A1: Map of the study locations. Colors correspond to geographical regions as on network figures. Blue is America, brown is North Sea, yellow is the Channel, red is Northwest Iberia, green is South Portugal and black is Azores/Canary/Morocco. East America, North Sea, the Channel and Northwest Iberia are sympatric sites while the others are allopatric. See Table A1 for precise locations.

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Additional file 2:

Figure A2: Network topology of F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus individuals with the Rozenfeld distance under the percolation threshold. At the threshold values of 7.11 (A) and 4 (B). Nodes representing individuals are circles for F. spiralis and squares for F. vesiculosus. Colors correspond to geographical regions (see Figure A1). One can see at D = 7.11, the network is composed of two giant clusters corresponding respectively to the two species. At D = 4, the clusters of F. spiralis is still entirety at the exception of a little cluster of North Portugal.

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Additional file 3:

Figure A3: The average cluster size excluding the largest one, as a function of the imposed genetic threshold obtained with the natural individuals. (A) calculated with the Rozenfeld distance, (B) calculated with the Shared alleles distance. The arrows indicate the percolation threshold (Dp) on the curves.

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Additional file 4:

Figure A4: Network topology of F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus individuals with the Shared alleles distance under the percolation threshold. At the threshold values of 0.39 (A) and 0.33 (B). Nodes representing individuals are circles for F. spiralis and squares for F. vesiculosus. Colors correspond to geographical regions (see Figure A1).

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Additional file 5:

Hybridization simulation methods. This file includes the description of the method used to randomly generate individual hybrids.

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Additional file 6:

Figure A5: The average cluster size excluding the largest one, as a function of the imposed genetic threshold calculated with the Rozenfeld distance. (A) is the curve obtained with the simulated hybrids spiralis/vesiculosus, (B) with back-crosses hybrids/spiralis, (C) back-crosses hybrids/vesiculosus and (D) with back-crosses hybrids/spiralis_vesiculosus. The arrows indicate the percolation threshold (Dp) on the curves.

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Additional file 7:

Figure A6. The genetic diversity spectrum (GSD) for F. spiralis (A) and F. vesiculosus (B) based on the Rozenfeld distance.

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Additional file 8:

Figure A7: Microsatellite detection of admixture (introgression) using the program STRUCTURE (Pritchard et al., 2000). Each individual is represented in the figure by a vertical bar and its colors indicate the proportional membership in each of k = 3 clusters, thereby providing a quantitative illustration of introgression.

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Additional file 9:

Table A1: Global characteristics of the dataset used in this study.

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Additional file 10:

Table A2: Natural putative hybrids highlighted by the SD network.

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