Evolved parameters (a, b) and resulting behavioural dynamics (c, d, e). For small resource values two distinct evolutionary outcomes occur, which correspond to turn-taking (black dots) and contest strategies (grey dots). The evolution of a positive update factor U (a) results in the establishment of stable subordinate-dominant relationships, which are characterized by high values of the directional consistency index (DCI) (c). In contrast, the evolution of a negative update factor U leads to the establishment of alternating dominant-subordinate relationships, which are characterized by low DCI values (c). Higher evolved values of the giving-up threshold T (b) result in longer fights (d). This increases the likelihood that stronger individuals win (figure 4 in Appendix A), which leads to more linear hierarchies (e).
Franz et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:323 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-323