Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of an 11,450-year-old Aurochsen (Bos primigenius) from Central Italy

Martina Lari1, Ermanno Rizzi2, Stefano Mona38, Giorgio Corti2, Giulio Catalano1, Kefei Chen4, Cristiano Vernesi5, Greger Larson6, Paolo Boscato7, Gianluca De Bellis2, Alan Cooper4, David Caramelli1 and Giorgio Bertorelle3*

Author Affiliations

1 Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Università di Firenze, Firenze, Italy

2 Istituto di Tecnologie Biomediche, CNR, Segrate (MI), Italy

3 Dipartimento di Biologia ed Evoluzione, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

4 Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

5 IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Trento, Italy

6 Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham, UK

7 Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Università di Siena, Siena, Italy

8 EPHE (Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:32  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-32

Published: 31 January 2011

Additional files

Additional File 1:

Table S1. 454 sequencing results: variants in the reads mapped on bovine mitochondrial genome.

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Additional File 2:

Figure S1. Description of sequencing results.

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Additional File 3:

Table S2. Nucleotide misincorporations among reads.

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Additional File 4:

Figure S2. Results of singleplex PCRs, cloning and sequencing of ambiguous positions.

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Additional File 5:

Table S3. Amplification results of independent replications of selected fragments.

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Additional File 6:

Figure S3. Sequence Results of independent replications of selected fragments.

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Additional File 7:

Table S4. Location of substitutions between the Bos primigenius from Italy (BVA2) the and Bos primigenius from England (CPC98) mtDNA genome sequences.

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Additional File 8:

Table S5. Preliminary test: aminoacids D/L ratio values for the BVA2 sample.

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Additional File 9:

Figure S4. Preliminary test: results of amplification, cloning and sequencing of mtDNA control region fragments.

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Additional File 10:

Supplementary Materials and Methods. Additional details regarding the samples and the molecular procedures

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Additional File 11:

Input file for PHYCAS. Input file with the parameters used for the PHYCAS analysis. The DNA sequences are not included (see Additional File 11).

Format: PY Size: 1KB Download file

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Additional File 12:

Input file for BEAST, phylogeny. Input file used for the phylogenetic analysis in BEAST. In this file the clock is calibrated using a 1 MY divergence between B.taurus and B. bison.

Format: BEAUTI Size: 2MB Download file

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Additional File 13:

Input file for BEAST, demography. Input file used for the demographic analysis in BEAST. The mutation rate in this file is median value estimated in BEAST using the Additional File 12.

Format: BEAUTI Size: 700KB Download file

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