Plot of (Vip(i), Vg(i)) over all genes, after 200 generations, computed in the same manner as that described in Figure 2. Instead of a single mutation per network adopted thus far, we used much a larger number of mutations. Each color represented the variances as a result of 20, 75, 100, and 140 mutations per network, which gave additions or deletions of paths chosen randomly in the gene regulation network (GRN). After mutation number ~ 100, many of genes touched the line Vg(i) = Vip(i), where error catastrophe was percolated over many genes.
Kaneko BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:27 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-27