Demographic, genetic and demo-genetic median extinction times as functions of the level of metapopulation fragmentation (N). Extinction times are presented for different dispersal rates (m, ranging from 0 to 0.1, Kt fixed to 250, left panel) and different overall metapopulation carrying capacities (Kt, ranging from 50 to 1000, m fixed to 0.01, right panel). Continuous lines: low frequency of environmental perturbations (P = 0.05); dotted lines: high frequency of environmental perturbations (P = 0.15). In all cases, environmental perturbations occur and act independently among patches. F = 1.1.
Robert BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:260 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-260