Mutation rates within the hominid malaria clade stratified by conservation level across the Plasmodium genus. (a) Synonymous substitution rates. (b) dN/dS ratios. Data are based on 40 reference genes. Fixed differences between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi are indicated by filled grey bars; polymorphism within P. falciparum is indicated by empty bars. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. Conservation levels were based on BLOSUM62 score at individual amino acids in P. falciparum - P. chabaudi alignments; identical (+4 and above), semi-conserved (0 to +3), non-conserved (-4 to -1) and non-aligned.
Gardner et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:257 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-257