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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

Topi K Lehtonen12*, P Andreas Svensson13 and Bob BM Wong1

Author Affiliations

1 School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia

2 Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, 20014 University of Turku, Finland

3 School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:233  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-233

Published: 9 August 2011



Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius). We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation.


Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation), among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame.


Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.