Open Access Research article

Reconstructing genetic mating systems in the absence of parental information in colonially breeding waterbirds

Carolina I Miño12*, Michael A Russello2, Priscila F Mussi Gonçalves1 and Silvia N Del Lama1

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratório de Genética de Aves, Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, 13565-905, São Paulo, Brazil

2 Department of Biology, The University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, V1V 1V7, British Columbia, Canada

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:196  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-196

Published: 8 July 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1 - Excel spreadsheet. Laboratory conditions for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of microsatellite loci amplified in the Wood Stork, the Roseate Spoonbill and the Great Egret. Wood Stork and Roseate Spoonbill microsatellites were amplified using 0.5 U Taq DNA polymerase (Fermentas Inc, Glen Burnie, MD, U. S. A.); Great Egret microsatellites were amplified using 1U Taq DNA polymerase (Biotools B&M Labs, S.A., Madrid, Spain).

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Additional file 2:

Table S2 - Excel spreadsheet. Estimates of population-genetic parameters of microsatellite diversity for Roseate Spoonbill, Wood Stork and Great Egret samples from Amapa State, Pantanal region and Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. N: number of individuals analyzed, A: number of alleles, HO: observed heterozygosity, HE: expected heterozygosity, PEHW: probability of the exact test for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, PE: single-locus probability of exclusion (Waits et al. 2001), and PI: probability of identity (Jamieson & Taylor 1997) for increasing locus-combinations.

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Additional file 3:

Table S3 - Excel spreadsheet. Genetic relatedness ± standard error of Queller & Goodnight's index (1989) (Q&Gr) and of Lynch & Ritland's index (1999) (L&Rr) for 1.000 simulated pairs of unrelated (UR), half-sibs (HS) and full-sibs (FS), based on allelic frequencies observed in Roseate Spoonbills, Wood Storks and Great Egrets sampled in Amapa state, Pantanal region and Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. In parentheses, variances for each relationship category; lower variances are shown in bold. P-values of two-tailed t-tests for significance for differences between simulated and theoretically expected relatedness values (UR: 0; FS: 0.50; HS: 0.25) are shown in italics [(t0.05(2).999 = 1.962; critical P-value after Bonferroni correction = 0.0166].

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Additional file 4:

Table S4 - Excel spreadsheet. Misclassification rates expected for Roseate Spoonbill, Wood Stork and Great Egret nestling-pairs (Queller & Goodnight's 1989 index: Q&Gr; and Lynch & Ritland's 1999 index: L&Rr), estimated as the proportion misclassified out of 1.000 simulated pairs of unrelated (UR), half-siblings (HS) and full-siblings (FS), based on allele frequencies observed in samples from Amapa state, Pantanal region and Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil) (simulations performed as in Russello & Amato, 2004).

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Additional file 5:

Table S5 - Excel spreadsheet. Mean value of pairwise relatedness (r) (in italics) ± standard deviation (S.D.) estimated among and inside nests for each species and sample site.

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Additional file 6:

Table S16 - Excel spreadsheet. Number of dyads examined, number of dyads categorized and number of dyads in each one of the relationship categories, for each species: full-siblings (FS), half-siblings (HS) or unrelated (UR).

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Additional file 7:

Table S7 - Excel spreadsheet. Kinship patterns for Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) nestling-pairs sampled inside nests in breeding colonies from Amapa state, Brazil. For each pair, pairwise relatedness value (Queller & Goodnight 1989 index; Q&Gr), most likely relationship category (ML-R, as indicated by the maximum likelihood method in the program ML-Relate, Kalinowski et al. 2006), probability value (P) of hypothesis testing to establish the significance of the ML-R category (HP: putative hypothesis; HA: alternative hypothesis: a P value < 0.005 indicates that HP is more in agreement with the genetic data than the HA), and the score value for kinship reconstruction in PEDIGREE (Herbinger, 2006) are shown. All estimates were computed based on allele frequencies observed in nine microsatellite loci. UR: unrelated; FS: full-siblings; HS: half-siblings.

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Additional file 8:

Table S8 - Excel spreadsheet. Kinship patterns for Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) nestling-pairs sampled inside nests in breeding colonies from Pantanal region, Brazil. For each pair, pairwise relatedness value (Queller & Goodnight 1989 index; Q&Gr), most likely relationship category (ML-R, as indicated by the maximum likelihood method in the program ML-Relate, Kalinowski et al. 2006), probability value (P) of hypothesis testing to establish the significance of the ML-R category (HP: putative hypothesis; HA: alternative hypothesis: a P value < 0.005 indicates that HP is more in agreement with the genetic data than the HA), and the score value for kinship reconstruction in PEDIGREE (Herbinger, 2006) are shown. All estimates were computed based on allele frequencies observed in nine microsatellite loci. UR: unrelated; FS: full-siblings; HS: half-siblings; Relat.: relationship identified.

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Additional file 9:

Table S9 - Excel spreadsheet. Kinship patterns for Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja) nestling-pairs sampled inside nests in breeding colonies from Amapa State, Brazil. For each pair, pairwise relatedness value (Queller & Goodnight 1989 index; Q&Gr), most likely relationship category (ML-R, as indicated by the maximum likelihood method in the program ML-Relate, Kalinowski et al. 2006), probability value (P) of hypothesis testing to establish the significance of the ML-R category (HP: putative hypothesis; HA: alternative hypothesis: a P value < 0.005 indicates that HP is more in agreement with the genetic data than the HA), and the score value for kinship reconstruction in PEDIGREE (Herbinger, 2006) are shown. All estimates were computed based on allele frequencies observed in five microsatellite loci. UR: unrelated; FS: full-siblings; HS: half-siblings.

Format: XLSX Size: 14KB Download file

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Additional file 10:

Table S10 - Excel spreadsheet. Kinship patterns for Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja) nestling-pairs sampled inside nests in breeding colonies from Pantanal region, Brazil. For each pair, pairwise relatedness value (Queller & Goodnight 1989 index; Q&Gr), most likely relationship category (ML-R, as indicated by the maximum likelihood method in the program ML-Relate, Kalinowski et al. 2006), probability value (P) of hypothesis testing to establish the significance of the ML-R category (HP: putative hypothesis; HA: alternative hypothesis: a P value < 0.005 indicates that HP is more in agreement with the genetic data than the HA), and the score value for kinship reconstruction in PEDIGREE(Herbinger, 2006) are shown. All estimates were computed based on allele frequencies observed in five microsatellite loci. UR: unrelated; FS: full-siblings; HS: half-siblings.

Format: XLSX Size: 11KB Download file

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Additional file 11:

Table S11 - Excel spreadsheet. Kinship patterns for Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja) nestling-pairs sampled inside nests in breeding colonies from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For each pair, pairwise relatedness value (Queller & Goodnight 1989 index; Q&Gr), most likely relationship category (ML-R, as indicated by the maximum likelihood method in the program ML-Relate, Kalinowski et al. 2006), probability value (P) of hypothesis testing to establish the significance of the ML-R category (HP: putative hypothesis; HA: alternative hypothesis: a P value < 0.005 indicates that HP is more in agreement with the genetic data than the HA), and the score value for kinship reconstruction in PEDIGREE (Herbinger, 2006) are shown. All estimates were computed based on allele frequencies observed in five microsatellite loci. UR: unrelated; FS: full-siblings; HS: half-siblings.

Format: XLSX Size: 14KB Download file

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Additional file 12:

Table S12 - Excel spreadsheet. Kinship patterns for Great Egret (Ardea alba egretta) nestling-pairs sampled inside nests in breeding colonies from Pantanal region, Brazil. For each pair, pairwise relatedness value (Queller & Goodnight 1989 index; Q&Gr), most likely relationship category (ML-R, as indicated by the maximum likelihood method in the program ML-Relate, Kalinowski et al. 2006), probability value (P) of hypothesis testing to establish the significance of the ML-R category (HP: putative hypothesis; HA: alternative hypothesis: a P value < 0.005 indicates that HP is more in agreement with the genetic data than the HA), and the score value for kinship reconstruction in PEDIGREE (Herbinger, 2006) are shown. All estimates were computed based on allele frequencies observed in five microsatellite loci. UR: unrelated; FS: full-siblings; HS: half-siblings.

Format: XLSX Size: 12KB Download file

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Additional file 13:

Table S13 - Excel spreadsheet. Kinship patterns for Great Egret (Ardea alba egretta) nestling-pairs sampled inside nests in breeding colonies from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For each pair, pairwise relatedness value (Queller & Goodnight 1989 index; Q&Gr), most likely relationship category (ML-R, as indicated by the maximum likelihood method in the program ML-Relate, Kalinowski et al. 2006), probability value (P) of hypothesis testing to establish the significance of the ML-R category (HP: putative hypothesis; HA: alternative hypothesis: a P value < 0.005 indicates that HP is more in agreement with the genetic data than the HA), and the score value for kinship reconstruction in PEDIGREE (Herbinger, 2006) are shown. All estimates were computed based on allele frequencies observed in five microsatellite loci. UR: unrelated; FS: full-siblings; HS: half-siblings.

Format: XLSX Size: 12KB Download file

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