Open Access Research article

Increased gene sampling strengthens support for higher-level groups within leaf-mining moths and relatives (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Akito Y Kawahara1*, Issei Ohshima2, Atsushi Kawakita3, Jerome C Regier4, Charles Mitter1, Michael P Cummings5, Donald R Davis6, David L Wagner7, Jurate De Prins8 and Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde9

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

2 Division of Evolutionary Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan

3 Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

4 Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

5 Laboratory of Molecular Evolution, Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

6 Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA

7 Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA

8 Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium

9 INRA, UR0633 Zoologie Forestière, F-45000, Orléans, France

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:182  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-182

Published: 24 June 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Exemplar species included, their classification, and GenBank accession numbers. For Gracillariidae the number of taxa in each subfamily and genus is listed in parentheses (number of taxa sampled/number of taxa known). "x" denotes a sequence that could not be amplified.

Format: XLS Size: 52KB Download file

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Additional file 2:

Single gene bootstrap values for all nodes in the nt123 tree of data set B. Shaded boxes are those with > 80% bootstrap support. "ALL" refers to dataset B (all genes included). See Additional file 1 for taxon code names.

Format: XLS Size: 29KB Download file

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Additional file 3:

Comparison of Euclidean compositional distance (NJ), GTR ML distance (NJ), and ML trees for nt123 and nt3. Arrows indicate a long internal branch in the Euclidean compositional distance trees.

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Additional file 4:

Maximum likelihood nt123 trees for data sets A through D. Scale bar = 0.07 substitutions/site.

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Additional file 5:

Maximum likelihood trees based on a codon model. Scale bar = 0.03 substitutions/site.

Format: EPS Size: 1.6MB Download file

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Additional file 6:

Maximum likelihood trees based on a partitioned model. Scale bar = 0.2 substitutions/site.

Format: EPS Size: 1.6MB Download file

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Additional file 7:

Maximum likelihood trees based on inferred amino acids. Scale bar = 0.03 substitutions/site.

Format: EPS Size: 1.6MB Download file

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