Table 1

Sample localities and number of sequences generated for four different markers

Region

Site

Site No.

GPS coordinates

COI

ANT

ATPSα

18S


South Africa

SW

Langebaan

1

33°01'07''S, 17°56'48''E

7

16

3

3

SW

Yzerfontein

2

33°20'49''S, 18°09'06''E

13

26

2

2

SW

False Bay

3

34°07'14''S, 18°27'31''E

1

6

1

1

S

Mossel Bay

4

34°10'42''S, 22°08'41''E

1

0

1

1

S

Knysna

5

34°03'17''S, 23°03'46''E

4

10

3

3

S

Plettenberg Bay

6

34°05'56''S 23°22'45''E

4

0

0

0

S

Tsitsikamma

7

33°58'52''S 23°38'32''E

2

0

0

0

S

Port Elizabeth

8

33°57'59''S, 25°38'04''E

5

4

0

0

SE

Haga-Haga

9

23°46'15''S, 28°14'16''E

2

2

1

1

SE

Morgan Bay

10

32°42'39''S 28°20'27''E

27

12

3

3

SE

Mngazana

11

31°41'41''S 29°25'27''E

1

6

0

3

E

Park Rynie

12

30°19'S 30°44'E

3

2

0

0

E

St Lucia

13

28°15'41''S, 32°29'47''E

6

12

3

3

Mozambique

Ponta do Ouro

14

26°50'40''S 32°53'43''E

2

4

0

0

Morocco

La Madrague

15

30°30'54''N, 9°44'48''W

14

6

0

0

Immesouane

16

30°50'20''N, 9°49'23''W

18

6

0

0

Australia

NSW

Fingal Head

17

28°11'56''S 153°34'16''E

20

38

1

1

Ballina

18

28°52'05''S 153°35'36''E

19

0

0

0

Port Macquarie

19

31°25'47''S 152°55'24''E

21

0

0

0

Black Head

20

32°04'15''S 152°32'55''E

20

0

0

0

Kiama

21

34°40'31''S 150°51'30''E

14

0

0

0

Ulladulla

22

35°21'35''S 150°29'11''E

17

0

0

0

Eden

23

37°04'01''S 149°54'47''E

16

0

0

0

VIC

Mallacoota

24

37°34'14''S 149°45'52''E

18

0

0

0

Cape Conran

25

37°48'52''S 148°43'36''E

21

28

0

0

Port Albert8

26

38°40'S 146°41'E

5

0

0

0

Port Welshpool

27

38°42'04''S 146°27'54''E

8

20

1

1

Walkerville8

28

38°51'49''S 146°00'08''E

5

0

0

0

Kilcunda8

29

38°33'23''S 145°28'50''E

30

30

1

2

Stoney Point8

30

38°22'21''S 145°13'30''E

4

0

0

0

Hastings8

31

38°18'30''S 145°11'57''E

5

0

0

0

Mornington8

32

38°12'49''S 145°02'04''E

3

0

0

0

Portsea8

33

38°19'07''S 144°42'44''E

8

0

0

0

Marengo Bay8

34

38°46'41''S 143°39'60''E

3

0

0

0

Portarlington8

35

38°06'45''S 144°39'06''E

4

0

0

0

TAS

Beauty Point

36

41°09'S 146°49'E

8

22

3

3

Two Tree Point

37

43°20'S 147°19'E

2

8

0

0

Taroona Beach9

38

42°57'S 147°21'E

0

4

0

0

SA

Henley Beach

39

34°55'11''S 138°29'31''E

8

6

3

3

Largs Bay8

40

34°47'48''S 138°29'04''E

4

0

0

0

Brighton Beach8

41

35°01'03''S 138°30'46''E

4

0

0

0

WA

Albany

42

35°01'57''S 117°53'25''E

10

6

3

3

New Zealand

N Twilight Beach9

43

34°29'22''S 172°40'56''E

0

8

0

2

S Twilight Beach9

44

34°30'32''S 172°41'59''E

0

6

0

1

Tauroa Peninsula9

45

35°10'12''S 173°06'22''E

0

20

0

0

N Herekino9

46

35°15'13''S 173°07'11''E

0

20

0

0

The Bluff9

47

34°41'06''S 172°53'23''E

0

20

0

0

Te Werahi Beach9

48

34°28'10''S 172°39'26''E

0

6

0

0

Tarawamaomao Pt.9

49

34°26'12''S 172°40'30''E

0

4

0

0

Chile

Antofagasta

50

23°42'25''S 70°25'51''E

151

52

3

3

Outgroup

Pyura dura

12

0

1

14

P. haustor

0

0

0

15

P. spinifera

1

1

1

1

P. squamulosa

13

0

0

16

Total no. sequences:

403

4117

34

40


COI sequences were generated for most specimens. The ANT gene was primarily used to confirm genetic structure identified using COI and to study genetic diversity in selected populations. The less informative ATPSα and 18S were used for phylogeny reconstructions only in conjunction with COI and ANT. 1For calculations in Table 3, 6 COI sequences generated in Castilla et al. [34] were included; sequences downloaded from GenBank (not included in the total number of sequences generated): 2FJ528618, 3FJ528625, 4FM244856, 5AY90392, 6FM897341; 7ANT sequences were generated for 206 individuals. Both phases were resolved (except in the outgroup species P. spinifera), resulting in a total of 411 ANT sequences. 8Sites from which previously generated, unpublished COI sequences were incorporated into this study. 9Sites for whose samples no COI sequences could be generated, possibly due to a mutation in the primer annealing site. Acronyms: E = East, N = North, NSW = New South Wales, S = South, SA = South Australia, SE = south-east, SW = south-west, TAS = Tasmania, VIC = Victoria, W = West, WA = Western Australia.

Teske et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:176   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-176

Open Data