Table 3

Estimated divergence ages of microhylid taxa

Estimated divergence age (Ma) ± SD [Min - Max values of 95% confidence interval]


Node

Divergence events

Calibration A

Calibration B

Calibration C

Calibration D

Calibration E

Calibration F

Average (MD) of calibration A-F

Van Bocxlaer et al.[2]*1

Van der Meijden et al.[3]

(from the Aln-2d + Tree1a combination)

(from the Aln-3d + Tree1b combination)


I

Split of microhylid lineage from other ranoids

143.2 ± 12.5

[121.6-170.3]

134.6 ± 15.6

[106.4-167.3]

130.0 ± 14.2

[103.8-159.3]

136.6 ± 10.3

[118.1-158.6]

133.0 ± 10.0

[115.3-154.4]

118.5 ± 11.5

[98.0-142.8]

132.6 (9.6)

127.3 ± 9.7

[109.9 - 147.9]

116 ± 17

[87 - 153]


II

Initial divergence of living microhylid subfamilies (Split of Phrynomerinae)

90.3 ± 8.5

[77.6-110.6]

82.3 ± 11.8

[61.6-107.6]

78.9 ± 10.6

[59.9-101.4]

92.3 ± 7.1

[80.3-108.0]

89.3 ± 6.8

[78.0-104.5]

75.4 ± 9.3

[58.7-95.1]

84.8 (8.4)

88.0 ± 6.5

[77.0 - 102.2]

66 ± 11*3

[47 - 90]


III

2 nd basal split of microhylid subfamilies (Split of Hoplophryninae)

88.7 ± 8.4

[76.3-108.6]

80.7 ± 11.6

[60.3-105.7]

77.4 ± 10.5

[58.7-99.6]

87.7 ± 6.4

[77.1-102.1]

84.6 ± 6.1

[74.7-98.6]

70.9 ± 8.8

[55.1-89.6]

81.7 (8.2)

83.9 ± 5.9

[74.2 - 97.1]

NS

(57 - 66)*4


IV

Split of Gastrophryninae + (Cophylinae + Scaphiophryninae) clade from other microhylids

85.8 ± 8.0

[74.2-105.1]

78.0 ± 11.3

[58.2-102.2]

74.8 ± 10.2

[56.6-96.4]

83.8 ± 5.8

[74.3-97.1]

80.8 ± 5.6

[72.0-93.8]

67.3 ± 8.5

[52.2-85.3]

78.4 (8.1)

NA

NA


V

Split of Kalophryninae from Asterophryinae + (Dyscophinae + Microhylinae) clade

81.4 ± 7.7

[70.7-100.1]

73.9 ± 10.8

[54.8-97.1]

70.9 ± 9.8

[53.4-91.6]

81.8 ± 5.6

[72.7-94.5]

78.8 ± 5.3

[70.5-91.3]

65.3 ± 8.3

[50.5-83.0]

75.3 (7.9)

76.8 ± 5.0*2

[68.9 - 88.7]

NA


VI

Split of Asterophryinae from Dyscophinae + Microhylinae clade

76.6 ± 7.1

[67.2-94.2]

69.3 ± 10.3

[51.2-91.3]

66.5 ± 9.3

[49.9-86.2]

76.8 ± 5.0

[68.9-88.6]

73.9 ± 4.9

[66.9-85.7]

60.8 ± 7.9

[46.8-77.7]

70.6 (7.7)

73.6 ± 4.5

[66.7 - 84.5]

57 ± 10

[40 - 79]


VII

Split of Dyscophinae and Microhylinae

73.6 ± 6.8

[65.3-90.7]

66.5 ± 10.0

[49.0-87.9]

63.7 ± 9.0

[47.7-83.0]

72.6 ± 4.4

[66.4-83.3]

69.7 ± 4.2

[65.1-80.6]

56.8 ± 7.5

[43.5-72.9]

67.2 (7.6)

68.7 ± 3.4

[65.1 - 77.6]

55 ± 10

[39 - 76]


VIII

Split of Gastrophryninae from Cophylinae + Scaphiophryninae clade

83.9 ± 8.0

[72.1-103.0]

76.3 ± 11.1

[56.7-100.2]

73.1 ± 10.0

[55.1-94.3]

80.4 ± 6.0

[70.1-93.8]

77.6 ± 5.8

[67.8-90.7]

64.7 ± 8.3

[49.8-82.3]

76.0 (7.9)

NA

NA


IX

Split of Cophylinae and Scaphiophryninae

72.1 ± 7.8

[59.8-90.0]

65.4 ± 10.1

[47.8-87.3]

62.7 ± 9.2

[46.4-82.3]

71.2 ± 6.8

[59.0-85.4]

68.9 ± 6.6

[57.1-83.0]

57.5 ± 8.1

[43.1-74.8]

66.3 (6.8)

NA

53 ± 9

[38 - 74]


X

Split of Gastrophrynoides from other asterophryines

53.7 ± 6.5

[43.1-68.5]

48.5 ± 8.2

[34.3-66.2]

46.5 ± 7.5

[33.4-62.6]

50.1 ± 5.5

[40.3-61.7]

48.4 ± 5.3

[39.0-59.8]

39.7 ± 6.3

[28.7-53.3]

47.8 (5.4)

NA

NA


XI

Initial divergence of non-Gastrophrynoides asterophryines

22.7 ± 4.3

[15.5-32.3]

20.5 ± 4.6

[12.9-30.7]

19.7 ± 4.2

[12.6-29.1]

30.4 ± 4.3

[22.8-39.6]

29.4 ± 4.2

[22.0-38.6]

24.1 ± 4.5

[16.5-33.8]

24.5 (5.4)

26.8 ± 4.0

[19.8 - 35.3]

20 ± 5

[12 - 30]


Node, roman numerals corresponding to Fig. 1. MD, mean difference. NA, not applicable. NS, not shown by the authors. *1They used two distinct dating methods and many distinct calibration point settings. The ages listed here were from the Bayesian molecular clock method and a calibration point setting (without point G) used as main result in their paper. *2Corresponding to the split age between Cophylinae + (Kalophryninae + Melanobatrachinae) clade and Asterophryinae + (Dyscophinae + Microhylinae) clade in [2]. *3Corresponding to the split age of Phrynomerinae + Gastrophryninae clade from other microhylids in [3]. *4Corresponding to the split of Otophryninae from other microhylids occurred between II and VI.

Kurabayashi et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:175   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-175

Open Data